Wednesday, February 04, 2009

Religion and Conscience

On FindLaw today, I have a column about a Wisconsin case in which a girl died of diabetes because her parents decided to pray for her health instead of taking her to the doctor for treatment. The parents, charged with reckless homicide, claim that they had a constitutional right, as a matter of religious freedom, to utilize faith-healing to help their daughter. Accordingly, they claim, the prosecutor is acting in violation of the First Amendment. The trial judge has thus far rejected such arguments. My column addresses the broader question of how the law should handle religiously motivated anti-social behavior.

In this post, I am interested in examining the relationship between people violating the law (or indeed, deciding to opt out of a majority practice, whether or not their conduct violates the law), out of "conscience," on the one hand, and out of religious conviction, on the other. In either case, people feel that what they have chosen to do (or, in the case of faith-healing, not to do) is right and that the alternative is wrong. Should the source of conscience -- belief in a supernatural order from heaven versus one's own sense of right and wrong -- mean the difference between legally protected and legally unprotected behavior?

Consider an example. Joan and John both work for the abolition of capital punishment. Joan is opposed to the death penalty because she believes it is wrong to kill unnecessarily, especially when some of those killed are ultimately proved innocent of wrongdoing. For the same reason, Joan is opposed to the consumption of animal products. Because such consumption condemns nonhuman animals to suffer excruciating pain and death, and because neither the animals harmed nor the alternative plant-based diet that people could consume, poses a threat to human life or thriving that would necessitate the cruelty, she views animal consumption as unnecessary and evil.

Joan is not a member of an organized religion and does not believe in a supernatural entity that demands either faith or specific behavior from its/his/her earthly subjects.

John, on the other hand, is an observant Catholic and believes the death penalty is contrary to God's law. For the same reason, he is opposed to legal abortion, the use of contraceptives, and gay marriage. Both Joan and John express their opposition to the death penalty in legal and illegal ways -- they meet each other for lawful protests and candle-light vigils at prisons whenever an execution takes place in their state, and they both give lectures around the country aimed at educating people about the injustice of state-sponsored, cold-blooded killing. On the unlawful front, they together sabotage the equipment used in executions and illegally trespass to find out and then publicize the names of doctors who perform lethal injections, in violation of state law.

Under existing First Amendment doctrine, it is easy to reject any defense that either Joan or John might mount to a prosecution for their criminal actions, on the theory that the First Amendment provides no exemption from generally applicable laws. On the other hand, one might believe that Free Exercise should be more robust and should allow for exemptions, at least in areas in which the conduct in question is nonviolent. In the latter case, would it be appropriate for one to limit such protection only to John, as a number of state religious freedom laws do, because his opposition to the death penalty is a product of his religious faith, or should the protection extend to Joan as well, who believes just as strongly and fervently in the evil of capital punishment?

Notably, conscientious-objector laws are not always confined to religion-based objection. People opposed to all war on the basis of their conscience may avoid military service, even if their opposition is not tied to faith in the Divine or to religious tenets. Similarly, various states (including New York) permit high school students to opt out of animal dissection in science classes and take advantage of educational alternatives that do not require anyone to be slaughtered. In this as well, there is no requirement of religious faith.

Yet many of us think of the exercise of religion as adherence to a set of rules that people are typically taught as children and then feel compelled to follow throughout their lives, even if they do not always understand exactly why they are asked to do, avoid doing, believe or avoid believing in particular things. We tend to view conscience, by contrast, as more cerebral and deliberate. Joan can, for example, explain why it is wrong to torture and kill animals for consumption -- by invoking widely shared views about unnecessary animal suffering -- in a way that John may not be able to explain why he believes artificial contraception is wrong. If John says, for example, that every act of sexual intercourse must carry the possibility of conception, this is simply a restatement of the belief that others -- of different faiths or no faith at all -- may not share. If, on the other hand, John says that artificial contraception empirically leads to widespread infection with STD's, then people who reject his faith might nonetheless listen, but he is then no longer making a religious argument.

Despite these apparent differences, however, any time a person chooses to depart from community norms because she believes that what the community does is wrong, she is operating on the basis of a commitment to a higher moral principle. That moral principle may come from a faith in religion, or it may come from a moral or philosophical conviction, but either way, the person has chosen a morality that differs from the group's morality, and the group must now decide how important it is to assert its dominant vision over dissenters. This is in part why the freedom of speech appears in the same First Amendment as the religion clauses do: if you are following the rules of the group, you need no constitutional protection; if you find a conflicting set of rules or ideas more compelling, for whatever reason, your dissent makes you vulnerable in the absence of a freedom of thought, speech, and conscience.

"Religion," broadly understood, therefore may refer to moral commitments that people view as trumping their obligation to obey the law. When such commitments do not significantly threaten the well-being of others, it is just that the law permit them to flourish, whatever their source might be. (For an extended defense of a similar interpretation of the religion clauses of the First Amendment, see Christopher L. Eisgruber and Lawrence G. Sager, Religious Freedom and the Constitution).

Posted by Sherry Colb

16 comments:

egarber said...

Incredibly thoughtful post and findlaw piece.

Here's one conflict I can never seem to reconcile:

Consider "conscience clauses", whereby pharmacists can refuse to issue morning after pills, contraception, etc., for religious reasons. I understand that such laws are intended to fortify and accommodate free exercise. But from an establishment clause standpoint, how can they pass the lemon test?

In other words, by definition, such laws do NOT have a secular purpose (do they?). And they seem to entangle the state with religion in a dangerous way: determining the very definition of what constitutes a valid form of exercise.

On an unrelated note, our puppy is having his surgery today. Consider it our economic stimulus contribution :)...

Sherry F. Colb said...

egarber makes a good point. I am generally not comfortable with the conscience clauses for pharmacists, because -- unlike, for example, people who might have to perform actual procedures, the role of the pharmacist seems removed enough to override personal moral commitments on theory that "this is part of the job." I have a column on this topic at the following site: http://writ.news.findlaw.com/colb/20051102.html.

Though I do not discuss the establishment clause issue in itself, I suspect that any religion-based exemption recognized by the law could potentially be characterized as "establishment," but that would seem to me to go too far.

Defining religion as conscience does help remedy the problem a bit, it seems to me, by no longer requiring people to invoke any sort of supernatural belief to defend their entitlement to an exemption. I wish your puppy a speedy recovery from surgery!

Jesse said...

Egarber:

Religion-based exemptions are frequently held not to violate the Establishment Clause. See Corporation Of Presiding Bishop v. Amos (1987) and Cutter v. Wilkinson (2005), both unanimous opinions. Are you suggesting that Title VII Section 702, RFRA, and RLUIPA all violate the Establishment Clause?

As for how to reconcile these decisions with the Lemon test, I think the answer is that removing a burden on free exercise has a secular purpose because it furthers a constitutional goal of guaranteeing religious liberty. That is, even if those burdens would not violate the Free Exercise Clause, removing those burdens might still have a secular purpose of further promoting religious liberty. As for entanglement, I think it's difficult to argue that relieving a group of a conscientious burden *excessively* entangles government and religion.

egarber said...

Jesse,

I realize that there are plenty of examples where free exercise is protected intentionally -- such as in the laws you present. My struggle is sort of Madisonian, I guess. I see religious liberty as a rule that keeps faith / conscience "beyond the cognizance" of government. Meaning, religion exists in the wider sea, and government is limited to an island. As a result, part of me worries when the government makes *any* kind of qualitative decision in this area (free exercise or otherwise).

So while I can understand and sort of accept your argument that protecting free exercise is itself secular, it can manifest itself in troubling ways, imo.

For instance, suppose a state passes "conscience clauses" around abortion and contraception, where doctors can refuse to issue certain prescriptions. What happens if I practice a faith that shuns the use of certain medicines? I go to the legislature for the same protection, and I'm told my faith isn't legitimate (or not legitimate enough for legal protection). So I'm basically screwed if I want to be a doctor, whereas the Christian in the former setting gets a leg up from the government. I can't comfortably call that disparity -- where the government ends up deciding what constitutes valid belief in the first place --secular in nature.

But your points are well taken, of course.

egarber said...

Of course, one answer in my last scenario could be a requirement that such laws must be broad, so they don't indirectly discriminate against any faith. But then, you've created a tidal wave -- because any and all regulations governing conduct might therefore become only "suggestions"...

Jesse said...

Well, your points are well taken as well! I don't know how to resolve your hypothetical problem. But I don't think that the current Establishment Clause law prohibits these religion-based accommodations. Perhaps the best solution would be to interpret the Religion Clauses to contain a robust non-discrimination injunction, so that any acceptance of one group's conscientious claim but not another's similar claim would create a presumption of a constitutional violation.

egarber said...

But I don't think that the current Establishment Clause law prohibits these religion-based accommodations.

Oh yeah, I'm pretty sure you're accurately reflecting current precedent. I suppose I'm questioning those precedents. I'm just a blogger -- stare decisis be damned :)

Michael said...

One thought. I am very interested in the distinction between a "religious" argument and other forms of argument ("cerebral" or "deliberate," as you put them) and why the the Constitution might view the two differently. Might the answer be that the theory underlying a deliberative democracy assumes that we are all starting from the same set of premises and from those premises debating which social policies make the most sense? If so, one who does not share the majority's premises is left out of this process--thus the marginalization of their views is not a function of the political process but a failure of it, which is exactly when (according to some) the Constitution should intervene.

kutyhgvd said...

It is the knight noah which makes me very happy these days, my brother says knight gold is his favorite games gold he likes, he usually knight online gold to start his game and most of the time he will win the knight online noah back and give me some cheap knight gold to play the game.

. said...

酒店喝酒,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,制服店,便服店,鋼琴酒吧,兼差,酒店兼差,酒店打工,伴唱小姐,暑假打工,酒店上班,日式酒店,舞廳,ktv酒店,酒店,酒店公關,酒店小姐,理容院,日領,龍亨,學生兼差,酒店兼差,酒店上班,酒店打工,禮服酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,經紀 彩色爆米花,經紀人 彩色爆米花,酒店傳播,酒店經紀 彩色爆米花,爆米花,童裝,童裝拍賣,童裝大盤,童裝寄賣,童裝批貨,酒店,酒店,童裝切貨,酒店,GAP童裝,酒店,酒店 ,禮服店 , 酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工

peter.w said...

塑料托盘,塑料栈板 四川塑料托盘,塑料栈板 成都塑料托盘,塑料栈板 自贡塑料托盘,塑料栈板 攀枝花塑料托盘,塑料栈板 泸州塑料托盘,塑料栈板 德阳塑料托盘,塑料栈板 绵阳塑料托盘,塑料栈板 广元塑料托盘,塑料栈板 遂宁塑料托盘,塑料栈板 内江塑料托盘,塑料栈板 乐山塑料托盘,塑料栈板 南充塑料托盘,塑料栈板 宜宾塑料托盘,塑料栈板 广安塑料托盘,塑料栈板 达州塑料托盘,塑料栈板 仓储货架|仓库货架|托盘|仓储笼 仓储货架|仓库货架|托盘|仓储笼 仓储货架|仓库货架|托盘|仓储笼 仓储货架|仓库货架|托盘|仓储笼 轻型仓储货架|轻量型仓库货架|库房货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 中量型仓储货架|中量A型仓库货架|库房货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 中量型仓储货架|中量B型仓库货架|库房货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 横梁式仓库货架|重型仓储货架|货位式库房货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 模具货架|抽屉式仓库货架|仓储货架|库房货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 贯通式仓储货架|通廊式仓库货架|驶入式库房货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 悬臂式仓储货架|仓库货架|库房货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 阁楼式仓储货架|仓库货架|库房货架|钢平台 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 流利式仓储货架|仓库货架|库房货架|辊轮式货架|自滑式货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架 工作台|工作桌 工具柜|工具车 托盘|塑料托盘|钢托盘|铁托盘|钢制托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼|蝴蝶笼 周转箱|塑料周转箱 静音手推车|铁板手推车|购物手推车|登高车 手动液压托盘搬运车|不锈钢搬运车|电子秤搬运车 高起升搬运车|电动搬运车|平台车 手动液压堆高车|手动液压堆垛车|半电动堆垛车 全电动堆垛车|油桶搬运车|圆桶搬运车|油桶装卸车| 柴油内燃平衡重式叉车|电动平衡重式叉车 液压升降机|剪叉式高空作业平台|固定式蹬车桥 文件柜 不锈钢制品 零件盒|零件柜 折叠式仓储笼|仓库笼 钢托盘 钢制料箱 堆垛架 物流台车 手推车 钢托盘 折叠式仓储笼|仓库笼 折叠式仓储笼|仓库笼 钢托盘|钢制托盘|铁托盘|金属托盘|镀锌托盘 堆垛架|巧固架 钢制料箱 物流台车|载物台车 手推车|静音手推车 手推车|静音手推车 仓储笼|钢托盘|钢制料箱|堆垛架|物流台车|手推车 仓储笼|钢托盘 仓储笼 仓库货架|中量A型货架 仓储货架|中量B型货架 库房货架|横梁式货架 塑料托盘|栈板 钢托盘|钢制托盘 折叠式仓储笼|仓库笼 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼 托盘|钢托盘 托盘|塑料托盘 周转箱|塑料周转箱 托盘|纸托盘 料箱|钢制料箱 工具柜|工具车|抽屉柜 工作台|工作桌 刀具柜|刀具车|刀具架 手动液压托盘搬运车|电动托盘搬运车 手动液压堆高车|手动叉车 仓储笼 仓库笼 南京仓储笼 常州仓储笼 无锡仓储笼 苏州仓储笼 徐州仓储笼 南通仓储笼 镇江仓储笼 连云港仓储笼 泰州仓储笼 扬州仓储笼 盐城仓储笼 淮安仓储笼 宿迁仓储笼 轻量型货架|角钢货架 中量A型货架 中量B型货架 货位式货架 横梁式货架 阁楼式货架|钢平台 悬臂式货架 贯通式货架|通廊式货架|驶入式货架 辊轮式货架|流利条货架 压入式货架 移动式货架|密集架 模具货架 抽屉式货架 汽车4S店货架 汽配库货架 自动化立体仓库货架 托盘|钢托盘|钢制托盘 托盘|塑料托盘 托盘|塑料托盘 托盘|塑料托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼 手推车|铁板手推车 手推车|静音手推车 置物架|工业置物架|家用置物架 堆垛架|巧固架 挂板架|物料整理架 登高车 物流台车|载物台车 料箱|钢制料箱 搬运车|手动液压托盘搬运车|电动托盘搬运车 堆高机|堆垛机|手动堆高机|电动堆高机 叉车|电动叉车|内燃叉车|叉车厂 货架 货架 仓储货架 仓储货架 仓库货架 仓库货架 货架厂 货架厂 货架公司 货架公司 托盘 钢托盘 铁托盘 钢制托盘 塑料托盘 仓储笼 仓库笼 折叠式仓储笼 折叠仓储笼 仓储货架|仓库货架|库房货架 南京货架|横梁式货架|中型货架 钢托盘|塑料托盘|纸托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼 钢制料箱|工具柜|工作台 手动液压托盘搬运车|手动液压堆高车 仓库货架|中量A型货架> 仓储货架|横梁式货架|货位式货架 托盘|塑料托盘|钢制托盘|纸托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼|蝴蝶笼|储物笼 手动液压托盘搬运车|手动液压堆高车 仓库货架|中量A型货架 仓储货架|横梁式货架|货位式货架 托盘|塑料托盘|钢制托盘|纸托盘 仓储笼|折叠式仓储笼|仓库笼|蝴蝶笼|储物笼 手动液压托盘搬运车|手动液压堆高车 仓储货架|仓库货架|库房货架 南京货架|中型货架|横梁式货架 钢托盘|钢制托盘|塑料托盘|纸托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼 钢制料箱|工具柜|工作台 手动液压托盘搬运车|手动液压堆高车 仓库货架|中量A型货架 仓储货架|中量B型货架 库房货架|横梁式货架|货位式货架 钢托盘|钢制托盘|铁托盘|栈板 托盘|塑料托盘|栈板 纸托盘|栈板 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼|蝴蝶笼|储物笼 钢制料箱|钢制周转箱|网格式料箱 搬运车|手动液压托盘搬运车|电动托盘搬运车 仓库货架|中量A型货架 仓储货架|中量B型货架 库房货架|横梁式货架|货位式货架 钢托盘|钢制托盘|铁托盘|栈板 塑料托盘|塑料栈板 纸托盘|栈板 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼|蝴蝶笼|储物笼 钢制料箱|钢质周转箱|网格式料箱 手动液压托盘搬运车|液压搬运车 仓储货架|>仓库货架|库房货架 南京货架|中型货架|横梁式货架 钢托盘|钢制托盘|塑料托盘|纸托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼 钢制料箱|工具柜|工作台 手动液压托盘搬运车|手动液压堆高车 仓库货架|中量A型货架 仓储货架|中量B型货架 库房货架|横梁式货架|货位式货架 钢托盘|钢制托盘|铁托盘|栈板 塑料托盘|塑料栈板 纸托盘|栈板 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼|蝴蝶笼|储物笼 钢制料箱|钢质周转箱|网格式料箱 手动液压托盘搬运车|托盘搬运车 货架|仓储货架|仓库货架|库房货架 南京货架|上海货架|北京货架 轻型货架|中型货架|搁板式货架 重型货架|横梁式货架|托盘式货架 托盘|木托盘|纸托盘|木塑托盘 托盘|钢托盘|塑料托盘|钢制托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼 手推车|静音手推车|铁板手推车 物料架|整理架|挂板架 料箱|钢制料箱|钢制周转箱|网格式料箱 手动液压托盘搬运车|电动托盘搬运车 手动液压堆高车|半电动堆高车|手动叉车 塑料周转箱|物流箱|塑料化工桶|塑料卡板箱 工具柜|上海工具柜|南京工具柜|抽屉柜 工作台|工作桌|南京工作台|上海工作台 刀具车|刀具柜|刀具架|刀具座 货架 货架厂 货架公司 仓储货架 仓库货架 库房货架 南京货架 上海货架 托盘 钢托盘 钢制托盘 货架|轻量型货架|角钢货架 货架|中量型货架|次重型货架 货位式货架|横梁式货架|重量型货架 仓储货架|阁楼式货架|钢平台 仓储货架|悬臂式货架 仓储货架|贯通式货架|通廊式货架|驶入式货架 仓库货架|库房货架|抽屉式货架|模具货架 仓库货架|库房货架|汽车4S店货架|汽配库货架 货架厂|货架公司|南京货架|上海货架|无锡货架|苏州货架 货架厂|货架公司|北京货架|天津货架|沈阳货架|大连货架 货架厂|货架公司|广州货架|深圳货架|杭州货架 托盘|钢托盘|钢制托盘 托盘|塑料托盘 仓储笼|仓库笼|折叠式仓储笼 置物架|多功能置物架|卫浴置物架 料箱|钢制料箱|钢制周转箱 手动液压托盘搬运车|不锈钢托盘搬运车|电动托盘搬运车 手动液压堆高车|半电动堆高车|电动堆高车|堆垛车 货架 仓储货架 仓库货架 货架厂 货架公司 托盘 钢托盘 铁托盘 钢制托盘 塑料托盘 仓储笼 仓库笼 折叠式仓储笼 折叠仓储笼 货架 货架 货架 仓储货架 仓储货架 仓储货架 仓库货架 仓库货架 货架厂 货架厂 货架公司 货架公司 托盘 钢托盘 铁托盘 钢制托盘 塑料托盘 仓储笼 仓库笼 折叠式仓储笼 货架 货架 货架 仓储货架 仓储货架 仓储货架 仓库货架 仓库货架 仓库货架 货架厂 货架厂 货架厂 货架公司 货架公司 货架公司 托盘 钢托盘 铁托盘 钢制托盘 塑料托盘 仓储笼 仓库笼 折叠式仓储笼 折叠仓储笼 托盘 塑料托盘 钢托盘 钢制托盘 铁托盘 货架厂 仓储笼 仓库笼 折叠式仓储笼 折叠仓储笼 南京货架 货架公司 货架厂 仓库货架 仓储货架 货架 货架

wsty said...

www.eshooes.com .
www.pumafr.com.
www.myshoess.com.
[url=http://www.pumafr.com]puma shoes[/url]
[url=http://www.eshooes.com]chaussures puma[/url]
[url=http://www.myshoess.com]nike air max ltd[/url]

酒店經紀ㄚ君姐姐 said...

,,領檯姐.,便服店,,

freefun0616 said...

酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店經紀, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店工作, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀,,

狗熊克星 said...

現在最夯的隆乳技術隆乳手術隆乳是女性朋友的夢想隆乳可以讓妳隆乳後變美隆乳醫師隆乳謢士隆乳價錢隆乳醫院隆乳文章隆乳訊息隆乳查詢隆乳行為隆乳便解決雞胸的困擾隆乳非常成功
當中岳庭是非常成功的一個例子,天生有點雞胸,為了挽救大小奶的窘況,以及順便解決雞胸的困擾,所以才會決定進行隆乳,在和醫師充份的討論之後決定了隆乳手術的流程,這是一個十分成功的手術,若您也想要有美美的胸型歡迎來電洽詢。

amine lahragui said...


thanks so much for that great blog and thanks also for accepting my links thanks
طريقة عمل الدونات طريقة عمل البان كيك طريقة عمل الكنافة طريقة عمل البسبوسة طريقة عمل الكيك طريقة عمل عجينة البيتزا فوائد القرفه
thanks so much i like very so much your post
فوائد الحلبة فوائد الزنجبيل فوائد الرمان فوائد زيت السمسم علاج البواسير فوائد البصل فوائد اليانسون فوائد الكركم فوائد الزعتر قصص جحا تعريف الحب علامات الحمل