Friday, February 13, 2009

Long-Term Benefits of Performance-Enhancing Drugs

As a law-professor, I haven't been tempted to take anabolic steroids, HGH or other performance-enhancing drugs (other than caffeine!). Thus, my knowledge of their effects is admittedly amateurish, based as it is on casual sports fandom, internet surfing, and watching the movie Better, Stronger, Faster. From what I've been able to figure out, depending on the drug, the benefits decay at different rates over time. Thus, a baseball player who took drugs to build muscle mass in, say, 2001, 2002 and 2003, and then stopped, would see the most benefit during those years, but depending on his fitness regime to maintain that mass and the particular drug, would continue to benefit in later years. For this reason, it's hard to take seriously the claim that use of PEDs taints performances during the period when those drugs are taken but not thereafter---a claim being made at least tacitly by A-Rod and others.

An analogy might be useful here. Consider the case of Oscar Pistorius, the South African runner who was originally forbidden from international competition because his artificial limbs were thought to give him an advantage over runners with intact legs and feet. The Court of Arbitration for Sport later overturned that ruling, although Pistorius failed to run a fast enough time to qualify for the Beijing Olympics. But suppose a clearer case. Suppose that a mediocre baseball pitcher named Lefty undergoes surgery and has installed in his arm socket a mechanical device that enables him to throw a 150 mph fastball with movement and control. Suppose further the surgery does not violate any rule of baseball. When the results of the surgery become apparent, however, Major League Baseball decides to ban this and related surgical improvements to players. Even though Lefty didn't violate any rules of baseball by having the surgery, it would be perfectly sensible to apply the rule to him because he derives a continuing advantage from it.

So why wouldn't we apply the same principle to past use of PEDs? Indeed, baseball players who used PEDs when baseball did not ban them were still breaking the law because these were controlled substances obtained illicitly, so they have less cause to complain than does Lefty, because Lefty's surgery was legal. The real problem here is simply one of enforcement: Because various PEDs decay over time, we don't have a good way now to figure out who is deriving continuing benefits from past PED use. Records we do have---such as the samples taken before baseball banned PEDs---were obtained only on a promise that they would not be used to discipline players, and thus cannot be used because of a kind of exclusionary rule.

But to repeat, those are practical problems about enforcement, not reasons in principle why athletes who continue to derive benefits from PEDs are somehow entitled to those benefits because they have stopped taking the drugs. To the extent that the PEDs work like Lefty's artificial super-arm, they confer an ongoing unfair advantage.

Posted by Mike Dorf


Paul Scott said...

I would say the general answer to the question is because an "unfair advantage" is not the problem. Unfair advantage is, in fact, the basis of all athletics. Both with PEDs and with the superarm (though there may be a different exception for the super arm, discussed below), the issue in question is merely the source of the unfair advantage (drugs or surgery, instead of genetics). If the source of that advantage was not against the rules (and being unlawful does not, per se, make something against the rules (and further, as use in America has not, as I understand it, been conceded, in the case of A-Rod it is not absolutely clear his actions would even have been unlawful)), then there is no "positive law" reason to punish.

The superarm, itself, btw, may be quite different. If so, it would be so regardless of the source of the advantage - surgery or genetics. To make the problem clear - imagine any number of comic style superheros competing against normals in any of our professional sport. Could baseball afford to allow Superman to play? I think it could not, as he would make a mockery of the sport. Likewise with the superarm - though at least now it is getting closer (though, imo, not close enough - though that would be empirically testable.) It would, likely, make a mockery of the game - as the pitcher with the super arm would pitch one perfect game after another - possibly from time to time getting unlucky as a batter taking wild and random swings might occasionally connect. Such a thing could not be allowed in baseball irrespective of any other rule because the entire market for baseball would quickly collapse (after reaping some curiosity benefit).

PEDs certainly do not reach that level, and thus I can see no good reason to restrict players who are found to have violated a policy not in place at teh time of the violation.

Michael C. Dorf said...

In response to Paul: Sports leagues do indeed have an instrumental interest in fair competition. A player that has a structural advantage making him invincible can make the game boring because the outcome is not in doubt. That's true of the super-arm and, I agree, would be true of someone (Superman, say), who was born with a super-arm. Sports leagues sometimes change their rules when such players emerge. For example, the NBA widened the lane, forbade offensive goaltending, and forbade jumping over the free throw line when shooting free throws in response to Wilt Chamberlain's natural gifts. However, no one ever seriously proposed banning Chamberlain from basketball because sports competition also honors an additional norm of fairness. Admittedly, it is a rather formalistic notion of fairness that permits rules changes designed to nullify a particular athlete's advantages, but still, I think the fact that Chamberlain was never subject to serious banning efforts in the way that Oscar Pistorius was shows that there is a widely shared norm entitling everyone to compete on the same terms using only their "natural" gifts and hard work. Admittedly, this calls for some fine line-drawing: why are laser eye surgery, contact lenses and glasses permitted for baseball players but men who have male-to-female sex-change operations not permitted for women's weight lifting? It's got something to do with the size of the advantage conferred as well as some culturally specific notions of what counts as a fundamental change to the person. I don't think a general rule can quite capture every case on each side of the divide, but I do think there is nonetheless a pretty strong norm that SOME "artificial" enhancements should be deemed impermissible because unfair. The point of my post was that whether past PED use should count is at least worth discussing.

Paul Scott said...

I again will say that fairness is not the issue. I think your examples magnify that point.

I assume you would have to agree that the eye modifications (whether laser, glasses or contacts) are far more effective at increasing performance that, say, steroid use in a game like baseball. the opposite is almost certainly true in weight-lifting or wrestling.

I think you just have it backwards when you say - "It's got something to do with the size of the advantage conferred as well as some culturally specific notions..."

I think it is almost exclusively a product of culturally specific notions and has a very very small bit to do with size of advantage conferred.

There is very little known about the effects of steroids on baseball performance (as opposed to the effects of steroids on muscle mass - which is well known). There is almost nothing known about the performance advantage - or even if there is a performance advantage - in baseball or any sport of hGH use in elite athletes (or even normal persons with normal production of hGH).

The spectre of PED use in Baseball is almost entirely divorced from any notion of their effects on performance because those effects at all - much less their degree - are unknown.

The almost knee-jerk social norm of "drugs are bad", otoh, is well entrenched.

Michael C. Dorf said...

Paul, suppose the following three hypothetical baseball players:
Sergio has the surgery to create a super-arm; Pedro takes legal PEDs when they are not banned, enabling him to grow a super-arm; Nate is simply born with a weird arm that operates like a super-arm. My VERY strong intuition is that Nate would not be banned from baseball, although baseball might adopt rules changes that partly nullify the advantages his super-arm confers. Sergio and Pedro might be subject to rules changes. (I'm assuming that these are 3 alternative scenarios, not that these 3 characters show up at the same time.) However, it strikes me as much more likely that baseball would ban Sergio or Pedro than that baseball would ban Nate. And as between Sergio and Pedro, I think Sergio would be more likely to be banned from baseball, even though we have no "War on Surgery" comparable to the War on Drugs. If these intuitions are right, they strongly support my hypothesis that what drives matters in these cases is some sense of what is a permissible "natural" advantage. So when I said in my last comment that culturally specific reactions play a role, I meant---and still mean---that they play a role in mediating the distinction between "natural" and "unnatural" advantages. Hysteria about drugs as one form of cultural reaction may play some role here, but that's hardly the whole story.

Tam said...

Paul: It seems to me that fairness is a primary good of athletic competition in the same way that justice is a primary good of any society, hence the cliche a "level playing field." If one competitor used technology not available to any other competitor, even if the advantage were not huge, one would still think it unfair, especially, as often is the case, where small differences can mean the difference between winning and losing.

If you are making the point that it is not ultimately possible to completely level the playing field, okay, point taken, but that just means that our notion of fairness in athletic competition accepts some finite range of differences in natural ability, as Mike says, not that we premise athletic competition on unfair advantage. Moreover, while we do not adopt the policy of Harrison Bergeron, the fact that professional sports select the best of the best to an extent has the effect of drastically narrowing the range of natural abilities among competitors (except by taking the highest base level possible to have the requisite number of total players, rather than lowest common denominator). Indeed, the desire for this is why we have different divisions in college sports, a minor and a major league, why wouldn't allow Superman to play, and why we don't pit the New York Giants against the South Brunswick High School football team.

Nor is PED equivalent to corrective eye treatment. The former is an enhancement to a level beyond the average, whereas the latter is a treatment to return to the average. Indeed, suppose an athlete had lasik not only to restore 20/20 vision, but to give him 100/5 vision, obviously we would see that differently (pun not intended).

For that matter, it's not even the PED in and of itself. Suppose steroids could treat a debilitating muscular disease to restore oneself to a pre-disease condition. I would think it fair for someone to use it for that purpose and compete, and still think Barry Bonds's use unfair.

Paul Scott said...

"Nor is PED equivalent to corrective eye treatment. The former is an enhancement to a level beyond the average, whereas the latter is a treatment to return to the average."

Neither of these statements are correct. Or, at a minimum, they cannot be read together correctly.

"Average" human level - both strength/muscle density and eye-sight - is *never* the goal of an athlete. An "average" human does not have perfect (or even adequate for athletics) vision. The eye surgery corrects for a genetic deficiency in the athlete and provides that athlete with far better than average vision, but well within the range that is possible for a human to obtain (that is, it is very good vision, but does not allow any super-human qualities). The exact thing can be said of anabolic steroids. They are taken by athletes for the purpose of enhancing muscle density beyond what their person genetic structure allows resulting in muscle density that is far from average but within the range of human normalcy. A-Rod, for example, does not have superhuman strength. Even with his enhancements, he is far far far from the "world's strongest man."

One enhancement is allowed by the rules, one is not (but prior to 2004, was). Apart from a social norm that tells us "drugs are bad", the two are indistinguishable.

The idea of a "level playing field" is complete non-sense. Propaganda of the worst sort. Natural selection guarantees us that the playing field will not be level. In fact, if it were, sports would very likely hold almost no interest to anyone.

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netde said...


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