Thursday, February 28, 2008

Alexander Hamilton Was Eligible to Be President

The controversy over whether John McCain is, in the words of Article II of the Constitution, a "natural born Citizen," and thus eligible to be President, despite having been born on a military installation in the Panama Canal Zone, has sparked all sorts of interesting commentary, and a NY Times story detailing the ambiguities of the requirement. For the record, I will say that I regard this limit as one of the worst features of our Constitution. Until it is amended, I would favor reading it so as to make eligibility for the Presidency as wide as possible. The best reading---although not necessarily the original understanding---would be to say that anybody who was a citizen at birth (whether because born in the U.S. or because born to U.S. parents overseas), should qualify as "natural born." Thus, in my view, McCain is eligible to be President.

Here I want to note a historical puzzle. It is frequently said that the "natural born Citizen" requirement was inserted in the text of the Constitution to prevent Alexander Hamilton---who was born in the West Indies---from becoming President. Some scholars note that this account is probably not true, but when they do so, they still tend to assume that Hamilton was not eligible to be President. For example, GW Law Prof Jonathan Turley says on his blog: "It is clear that the Framers considered natural born to refer to a birth on U.S. soil. Indeed, Alexander Hamilton was viewed as ineligible due to his birth in the West Indies."

Turley may well be right that Hamilton's contemporaries thought Hamilton ineligible for the Presidency. Reputable historians have said as much. But if so, Hamilton's contemporaries were surely wrong. It's true that Hamilton wasn't a "natural born Citizen," but the Constitution says that to become President one must be EITHER a "natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution . . . ." (boldface added). The boldface language was included because, at the time of the adoption of the Constitution, nobody who was old enough to be President had been born a citizen of the United States, there not having been a United States until July 4, 1776.

So, was Hamilton a Citizen of the United States in 1789, when the Constitution was adopted? Well, the Constitution contained no criteria of citizenship at that time. (Indeed, even today, it contains only partial criteria in the Fourteenth Amendment.) And by definition there were no federal statutes defining citizenship yet at the time of the Constitution's adoption. So it's not entirely clear where we look for citizenship criteria, but at the very least, it appears that State citizens were citizens of the United States. (This statement would later be called into question for African Americans when the Court said, in the Dred Scott case, that they are not citizens of the United States, even if a State treated free blacks as citizens, but that point doesn't affect the status of the white Hamilton.) And of course, in 1789, Hamilton was a citizen of New York, and thus a citizen of the United States.

We are thus left with the mystery of how, given what seems very clear constitutional language, people could have thought that Hamilton was ineligible for the Presidency.

Posted by Mike Dorf

35 comments:

David C. said...

Question: Under normal standing rules, would anyone be able to challenge a McCain presidency? Would a lawsuit be kicked out because this is an example of general taxpayer standing, without anyone suffering a specific enough harm (excepting, perhaps, the losing candidate)? What about the political question doctrine?

Michael C. Dorf said...

My view is that the issue could only be raised before the joint session of Congress described in the 12th Amendment, because the "natural born Citizen" provision appears in the original Constitution in a section that is all about Congress deciding who has been elected. But Bush v. Gore casts doubt on such a restrictive view of justiciability here. (Unless one takes a cynical view and says that Bush v. Gore only makes justiciable challenges that benefit Republican candidates, and I would never say anything like that.)

Sobek said...

"Thus, in my view, McCain is eligible to be President."

That's just because you're biased in favor of people I don't like.

So would you just strike the citizenship clause entirely, or modify it? And if the latter, how would you modify it?

SBL said...

Here's how that NY Times article starts:

"WASHINGTON — The question has nagged at the parents of Americans born outside the continental United States for generations: Dare their children aspire to grow up and become president?"

Um, if the issue is Americans born outside the "continental United States," I would think Obama (Hawaii) would also be pretty concerned.

Sarah L.

egarber said...

Excellent post Prof. This is why I come to the blog: you're thinking of cool junk for me :)

One interesting hypothetical question for me is: how would Thomas rule on such a matter, if it ever reached the Scotus? As a breed of originalist, how would he define "natural"?

Sobek said...

"As a breed of originalist, how would he define 'natural'?"

Anyone whose name doesn't rhyme with Schmalexander Bamilton.

BDG said...

To pick up on a tangent, there's still some question whether Hamilton would have been considered "white" in the 18th century. Ron Chernow argues in his biography (page 9 of my paperback version) that rumors that his mother was half or one-quarter black were probably untrue, since she was listed on tax rolls as white, and she lived in a "race-obsessed" society. But then on the next page he says, without noting that it might be in tension with his earlier argument, that propertied white women were incredibly scarce in the islands. Scarce enough that some would look the other way...?

What about genetics? On page 735 Chernow notes that he's helping fund a DNA project to reconstruct the Hamilton lineage, and that seems to have been inconclusive. The Hamilton descendants running the project, as best I could google, just say that Chernow's analysis is logical, and that their evidence hasn't shown anything to the contrary.

Jennifer said...

Actually, the first "natural born citizen of the United States" that became president was Martin Van Buren, the eighth president. The first seven presidents were born before the United States ever existed and considered themselves British citizens and subjects before 1776, which is the very reason why the second clause was included in the constitution at all. The American colonies, including the West Indies, were under British rule and those born before 1776, including Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, John Adams, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe and Andrew Jackson, were all natural-born British citizens.

Also, along those same lines... Paul Revere never said "The British are coming" in his famous midnight ride. After all, they were all still British at that time. The "British are coming" line is a myth.

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cy said...

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