Thursday, December 20, 2007

The New Politics of Delay

In what probably should be chalked into the ‘not too surprising’ column, the Bush administration last night rejected California’s request for permission to regulate cars as sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under Clean Air Act Section 209. Under 209, states are preempted from regulating cars as sources of pollution with one exception. CA can do so if it gets a waiver from EPA (CA petitioned for the waiver in December 2005). The process is laid out in Section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act. The conventional wisdom was that EPA had little room to deny the waiver in this case. Under the Act, it was free to do so if (A) anything in the CA petition was “arbitrary and capricious” (the California Air Resources Board actually put together pretty solid arguments); (B) CA did not need State standards to meet “compelling and extraordinary conditions” (more on this below); or (C) the CA standards and accompanying enforcement procedures were not “consistent” with the federal regulation of cars as sources of pollution (anything that is “more stringent than” is, at least in principle, normally “consistent with”).

Of course the denial came just a few days after a district court in California held that the waiver request was viable at least in principle because the Clean Air Act reaches greenhouse gases as “pollutants.” And it came only a day after the signing of new federal fuel economy standards. The CA rules and waiver request would subject the car companies to a quicker phasing in of GHG emission controls (2009-16 phase in) as compared to the new federal schedule in the energy bill passed on Tuesday (2012-2020 phase in). In auto industry years, that difference could be very significant.

Either way EPA went here, more litigation over fuel economy was certain. But I’d like to draw attention to the specific legal grounds for denying CA’s petition. If EPA’s press release is any indication of what it will say in its formal denial of the petition, it looks like it is going to bungle this as badly it did the petition at issue in Massachusetts v. EPA (a request that EPA make federal rules on fuel economy under the Act’s Section 202). EPA’s press release was titled “America Receives a National Solution for Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” In it and in remarks quoted in the press, EPA Administrator Steve Johnson says that federal uniformity is the reason for rejecting CA’s petition. A “patchwork” of state laws on the matter would be bad for the country and, in any event, the federal standards will apply to “all 50 states.” That is a non sequitur, though.

I’ll grant that CA might not be able to prove under Section 209(b)(1)(B) that it is uniquely vulnerable to climate change among the states (although they make a pretty good case). But even CA admits that: it has always maintained that it is acting out of both vulnerability to climate change and a sense of burden sharing: CA contributes disproportionately to US GHG emissions and transportation accounts for over half of its emissions. CA as contributor of GHGs was looking to move now through all available channels. If anything in its approach was “inconsistent” with the federal rules or was less stringent, EPA could easily have identified it and rejected the petition for that reason alone. Some 17 other states had said that they would utilize their authority under 209(c) to require the CA cars if and when EPA granted CA its waiver. So there would be a significant number of states requiring exactly the same thing as CA, but that isn’t a “patchwork.” It’s a real incentive to car makers to meet the more stringent standard and only have to retool once.

Federal preemption here doesn’t provide a “solution” to anything because there is no single solution to this crisis. To deny the petition by raising the Damocles sword of a “patchwork” is to seriously skew the analysis the statute requires. The question is not whether the nation’s economy as a whole will work better with a single (more distant in time) requirement (which American car companies can "fine tune" through wormy tactics and influence in Washington). The question is whether CA’s petition fails on any of the listed statutory factors. Incidentally, CA and its partners have vowed to sue.

Posted by Jamie Colburn

13 comments:

Michael C. Dorf said...

Right on all points. The "patchwork" point seems clearly targeted at uninformed public opinion rather than people who actually follow this issue, given that 2 regimes is hardly a "patchwork." And as I noted in my FindLaw column on Monday (available at http://tinyurl.com/2pphpf) if the CA standards take hold, there will be only 1 regime, i.e., California's.

heathu said...

If California ultimately gets its waiver, does anyone know exactly how California proposes to reduce CO2 emissions in cars? Are they going to require that any manufacturer that wants to sell cars in California have a fleet average of 43 mpg, instead of the federal 35? Could a manufacturer meet the California average by simply not selling their thirstiest cars in California? Does California have to follow the federal fleet average model – could it simply ban the sale (and registration in CA) of all cars that do not get at least 43 mpg? Instead of banning the worst CO2 emitters, would CA have the power to fine companies that don’t meet their emissions standards? Thirstier cars would still be sold in CA, but the manufacturer would be fined and presumably pass the added cost on to the consumer of the thirstier car (And wouldn’t such a system be a lot like a gas tax anyway? – people paying more for a thirstier car in their monthly payments instead of at the pump, with the money going to the state treasury.)

egarber said...

I may butcher this, but isn't the whole "patchwork" argument insincere for another reason as well -- namely, because it's sweeping enough to reject ANY CA effort?

In other words, isn't such an opinion an indictment of the current law itself, since it could conceivably apply to anything CA might do?
Suppose CA wanted to keep cyanide out of the air -- sorry guys, that would create a "patchwork", no can do.

Something seems wrong with an argument that mutes a law entirely.

Not sure if I'm making any sense.

Are we allowed to not make any sense here? :)

Jamison Colburn said...

In response to heathu, I believe the CA approach is to require fleetwide reductions in emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, along with a few technology-based standards on the use of certain refrigerants in the A/C units (which are extremely potent GHGs). For the fuel, it is obviously going to be a de facto improved fuel efficiency requirement (barring some serious innovation in combustion technology I'm not aware of).

In response to egarber, I think that's exactly right. As I may have mangled in my post, this can't possibly be EPA's reasoning in the actual petition denial. If it is, they won't just go down in flames in the lawsuit. They'll spontaneously combust. Then again, maybe it is their argument. Juliet Eilprin's piece in the Post today quotes EPA lawyers who are already expecting to the lose the case.

路傑 said...

免費A片, ut聊天室, AV女優, 美女視訊, 免費成人影片, 成人論壇, 情色交友, 免費AV, 線上a片, 日本美女寫真集, 同志聊天室, 聊天室交友, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 色情網站, 辣妹視訊, 美女交友, 微風成人區, 色美媚部落格, 色情影片, 成人影片, 成人網站, 免費A片, 上班族聊天室, A片,H漫, 18成人, a漫, av dvd, 一夜情聊天室, 微風成人, 成人圖片, 成人漫畫, 情色網, 日本A片, 免費A片下載, 性愛, 成人交友, 嘟嘟成人網, 嘟嘟成人網, 成人貼圖, 成人電影, 成人, 中部人聊天室, 080中部人聊天室, 成人貼圖, 成人小說, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 免費成人影片, 成人遊戲, 微風成人, 愛情公寓, 成人電影, A片, 情色, 情色貼圖, 情色文學, 做愛, 成人遊戲, 成人影城, 色情聊天室, 色情小說, 一葉情貼圖片區, 情色小說, 色情, 寄情築園小遊戲, 色情遊戲, 成人網站, 麗的色遊戲, 色情網站, 成人論壇, 情色視訊, 情色電影, aio交友愛情館, 言情小說, 愛情小說, 色情A片, 情色論壇, 自拍, 癡漢, , 俱樂部, 豆豆聊天室, 聊天室, 色情影片, 視訊聊天室, 免費視訊聊天, 免費視訊, 視訊交友90739 情人視訊網影音視訊聊天室 免費視訊聊天室 視訊聊天 視訊交友 美女視訊 視訊美女 視訊 免費視訊 免費視訊聊天 視訊聊天室 辣妹視訊 一夜情 色情a片 aio交友愛情館 情色電影 情色視訊 色情遊戲 色情 情色小說 一葉情貼圖片區 色情小說 色情聊天室 情色交友 成人論壇 成人網站 色情網站 情色論壇 小高聊天室 女同志聊天室 6K聊天室 080苗栗人聊天室 080聊天室 聊天室尋夢園 UT男同志聊天室 男同志聊天室 尋夢園聊天室 UT聊天室 聊天室 豆豆聊天室 A片 成人電影 成人貼圖 嘟嘟成人網 美女交友 本土自拍 成人交友 成人影片http://ssff01.3b8mm.com/

note1 said...

不動産
合宿 免許
網頁設計
ショッピング枠 現金化
クレジットカード 現金化
キャッシング
幼児教室
名刺

xw said...

TheWorld of Kung fu Gold seems also important. His only since ancient immutable law. WoKf gold in the game is just like the money in the life. It is different of the buy World of Kung fu Gold online in the game world. You can have cheap World of Kung fu Gold to update your weapons. And the World of Kung fu money should be more and more.

. said...

酒店喝酒,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,制服店,便服店,鋼琴酒吧,兼差,酒店兼差,酒店打工,伴唱小姐,暑假打工,酒店上班,日式酒店,舞廳,ktv酒店,酒店,酒店公關,酒店小姐,理容院,日領,龍亨,學生兼差,酒店兼差,酒店上班,酒店打工,禮服酒店,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,經紀 彩色爆米花,經紀人 彩色爆米花,酒店傳播,酒店經紀 彩色爆米花,爆米花,童裝,童裝拍賣,童裝大盤,童裝寄賣,童裝批貨,酒店,酒店,童裝切貨,酒店,GAP童裝,酒店,酒店 ,禮服店 , 酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,招待所,

. said...

酒店喝酒,禮服店,酒店小姐,制服店,便服店,鋼琴酒吧,兼差,酒店兼差,酒店打工,伴唱小姐,暑假打工,酒店上班,日式酒店,ktv酒店,酒店,酒店公關,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,酒店上班,酒店打工,禮服酒店,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,經紀 彩色爆米花,經紀人 彩色爆米花,酒店傳播,酒店經紀 彩色爆米花,爆米花,童裝,童裝拍賣,童裝大盤,童裝寄賣,童裝批貨,酒店,酒店,童裝切貨,酒店,GAP童裝,酒店,酒店 ,禮服店 , 酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,招待所,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店上班,暑假打工,酒店公關,酒店兼職,酒店經紀

wsty said...

www.eshooes.com .
www.pumafr.com.
www.myshoess.com.
[url=http://www.pumafr.com]puma shoes[/url]
[url=http://www.eshooes.com]chaussures puma[/url]
[url=http://www.myshoess.com]nike air max ltd[/url]

酒店經紀ㄚ君姐姐 said...

,,姐.,便服/,,

freefun0616 said...

酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店經紀, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店工作, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀,,

Kitty said...

巨乳エロ妻即アポ出会い ★ SEX好きギャル系人妻とやれる出会い系 ★ エロ系主婦と出会い ★ 淫乱ギャル妻出会い系サイト ★ 淫乱エロ妻出会い系無料 ★ ヤリマン主婦完全無料出会い ★ エッチ好き奥さんとやれる ★ 割り切った新妻出会い掲示板 ★ エロ系ギャル系人妻出会い ★ 愛人人妻出会い ★ 愛人ギャル系人妻とやれる出会い系 ★ セフレ募集主婦即エッチ出会い ★ エロ系40代即エッチ出会い ★ エッチな主婦出会いサイト ★ 割り切った主婦出逢い系 ★ エッチ好き人妻出会いBBS ★ 近所の新妻出合い ★ セフレ希望エロ妻出会い掲示板 ★ 近所の新妻出逢い ★ 不倫希望若妻出会い ★ セフレ希望人妻出逢い系 ★ 愛人希望ギャル妻と出会える ★ ヤリマン主婦出逢い ★ 淫乱人妻と出会える ★