Friday, December 29, 2006

FDA Approval of Cloned Animal Products

Yesterday the FDA released a draft document which, if made final, would permit the sale for consumption of animal products from cloned animals and the offspring of cloned animals. The FDA acknowledges that there are some difficulties associated with cloning but these typically either prevent reproduction entirely or pose risks to the cloned animal but not its offspring or those who consume the resulting animal products. The FDA is soliciting comments before putting the new rules into effect.

Some people, including yours truly, object to consumption of cloned animal products because we think it categorically immoral to consume sentient animals or their products (given the conditions in which food-producing animals are kept and the industries with which they are intertwined even if they themselves are not eaten: bull calves born to dairy cows end up as veal; male chicks that hatch from fertilized eggs of laying hens are often fed to the wood-chipper). But we vegans are only about one to two percent of the U.S. population (based on poll data analyzed here) and, in any event, we don't object to the consumption of cloned animal products on the ground that they're cloned but on the ground that they're animal products. I understand from news reports that the two main objections to the consumption of cloned animal products from non-vegans/non-vegetarians are: 1) Fear of Frankenstein's monster; and 2) Fear of the slippery slope to human cloning.

The Frankenstein's monster objection asserts that cloning is a new technology which could well have unanticipated side effects. That is, of course, always possible, but this objection applies to any new technology. Effects of cloning are studied over the course of multiple generations. Drugs for humans, by contrast, are subject to clinical trials for one generation. Long-latency problems seem much less likely to arise from consuming cloned animal products than from taking a new drug.

The fear of a slippery slope to human cloning strikes me as unrealistic as well. People permit themselves to kill sentient animals for food precisely because they do not think of non-human animals as entitled to ethical consideration. Indeed, even the suggestion (by people like me) that we should not deliberately kill non-human animals capable of suffering is deemed offensive by some of these people, for it equates humans with other animals, they say. (It doesn't. I don't say that cows should be able to vote or attend medical school, only that they shouldn't be made to suffer and die to satisfy someone's preference for beef over tofu or leather over pleather. But I won't pursue the point here.) It strikes me that the non-vegan/non-vegetarian majority will have very little difficulty saying that cloning is permissible for cows, pigs and chickens but impermissible for humans, on the ground that humans are, in their view, categorically different. As a vegan, I wish others perceived the the slope as slippery, but as a realist, I doubt they will.

21 comments:

Michael W. Dowdle said...

Genetic modification or no, cattle would would get the vote tomorrow if someone could convice Karl Rove they'd vote republican. (Most are red-staters after all.)

Adam P. said...

I think this just exposes the ridiculousness of parade of horribles arguments generally. The "if we allow X, soon we'll allow Y" makes no sense, if there's a legitimate reason to allow X and no legitimate reason to allow Y. Take the gay marriage debate...(the easiest argument to escape the slippery slope, and one I know our leader supports, is to argue that it's just a form of sex discrimination)...Sure, allowing/requiring gay marriage does recognize individual associational/sexual/familial autonomy principles, but there's no reason why allowing someone to marry someone of the same sex would lead to a requirement of allowing people to marry the bull calf. Why? Because they're not the same thing. We can easily justify a difference between marryign a human and marrying an animal.
The same distinction applies to cloning. Just because we allow cloning of animals, does not mean we "must" allow cloning of humans. Humans and animals are different prima facie, but also, the big reasons (2 of "us" walking around", conceiving human life only to destroy it) we (the proverbial we) fear human cloning do not exist with animal cloning (although we are assuming "god's role".)

Derek said...

"Some people, including yours truly, object to consumption of cloned animal products because we think it categorically immoral to consume sentient animals or their products"

Consider the possibility, though, of cloning animals who lack the capacity for suffering, say because they are genetically modified to have underdeveloped brain stems. Or, maybe more immediately plausible, harvesting organ meat in a lab without having to kill or exploit animals at all. These are exciting possibilities for vegan/vegetarians who like the taste of meat. More importantly, though, such innovations would go a long way toward reducing the horrors of factory farming.

So even though the FDA proposal doesn't change the current ethical landscape from the vegan/vegetarian perspective, it might be a necessary legal/social step toward developments which would.

Jamison Colburn said...

Derek's comment is the one in this debate that always gives me pause. Just to disclose: I don't eat meat either, although I do eat fish and eggs if they are appropriately caught/produced and there's a chain of custody guarantee given. (My objections are about needless infliction of pain/suffering and sustainability, not "sentience" (whatever that comes to).) But I've spoken to a lot of people lately since biotech has brought such possibilities to light and quite a few have said they'd happily eat a chicken that was genetically engineered to have no head, brain, brainstem, etc. Supposing this first step by FDA is "necessary" or instrumental to that end, I have to confess to some misgivings about a slippery slope here. That may put me in the minority on this blog, but I think we are on the verge of some major shifts in our worldview of "life" and nature today. A fascinating read on this, btw, is Lee Silver's book, Challenging Nature (2006).

Michael C. Dorf said...

I read a science fiction novel when I was a kid (so this is at least 30 years ago) in which all "chicken" for human consumption came from the deliberately ironically named "Chicken Little," a chicken so enormous that huge slabs of its flesh could be sliced off without harming the chicken, and without the chicken even noticing. Or consider the steers in The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, which have been bred to WANT to be eaten. In the latter case, certainly, I think it would be nonetheless immoral to kill it for food. (For a real-life version, consider the German cannibalism case with the willing victim.) But that's a much harder case than eating the brainless chicken.

To make one argument for Jamie's view that the slippery slope is not entirely without substance, suppose that human flesh were the greatest delicacy of all, and that it became possible to clone brainless humans, gestating them outside of any human womb. Would it not be wrong to eat THEM?

Derek said...

Admittedly it would be distasteful (no pun intended) but whether or not it would be morally wrong, I think, is another question. I'd say yes, if eating cloned brainless humans somehow promoted or sanctioned the eating of non-cloned brainy humans. Or maybe yes, again, if harvesting brainless humans served to devalue the community's general respect for human life. But these are empirical claims that I'd need some evidence, or a compelling argument, for before accepting. I'd also say yes if I believed there was such thing as a soul, and that even brainless clones had them. I don't believe that, but I concede that if I did the harvesting humans scheme would be pretty awful.

These issues aside, and considering eating brainless human clones as an act in and of itself, if it is morally wrong it must be because of the suffering it causes or because it fails to treat the clones as persons with moral status. But without a brain, suffering is not possible. And although I know a lot of people will disagree with me about this, I don't think such beings would have any relevant moral status either. Perhaps it's widespread acceptance of this latter claim that is meant to lie at the bottom of the slippery slope?

Curious, I googled the Giant Chicken story. Turns out it was Frederick Pohl's first book, *The Space Merchants.* The blog I found it on linked to an a propos article on "meat sheets." Here it is:
http://www.wired.com/news/
technology/0,71201-0.html?tw=wn_index_1

Jamison Colburn said...

I disagree that the only moral considerations in Mike's science fiction example are suffering and souls. It is also incumbent upon moral agents to consider the indirect effects of their choices. To be a willing consumer of such a product is most certainly to play your part in inducing other, less morally constrained agents to serve your wants and to profit thereby. Paternalistic perhaps. But what's left to slow someone noticing your taste for flesh from innovating furthering? One of the few things I think Silver gets wrong in his excellent book I mentioned is his belief that there are no slippery slopes in the world. This is the naivete of someone who doesn't undersand the limits of social organization. People who engage in organic gardening, for his example, do so out of an irrational belief that nutrient-fixing humous in soil is different from chemical-induced nutrient fixation. I don't garden organically myself for that reason. I do so because I don't want Monsanto or Cargill or DuPont to get one red cent of mine that ultimately underwrites their next *green revolution,* knowing how those firms are structured to operate.

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