Thursday, April 02, 2009

Giving Cost/Benefit a Bad Name

There was little surprise in the Court’s announcement of Entergy v. Riverkeeper yesterday. By a margin of 5-1-3, the Court upheld EPA’s interpretation of Clean Water Act (CWA) § 316(b). CWA 316(b) requires EPA to establish performance standards for so-called “cooling water intake structures,” the sometimes-giant intakes of water that power plants and other industrial sites operate which tend to obliterate the life in the water that passes through them. The text of the Act tells EPA that it should set such standards to require the “best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” EPA had concluded this language allowed it to weigh the costs of various technologies against the environmental benefits they would produce—an interpretation many criticized as unfaithful to the “legislative intent” and/or true meaning of the CWA.

The technology EPA reviewed ended up being tiered as between new installations of a certain (large) size, large existing-, and small existing installations. EPA’s rules were segmented accordingly into Phase I, II, and III. Of principal concern to the challengers in this case were the so-called Phase II rules applicable to large existing installations, mostly power plants. EPA required these facilities to reduce their impacts (so-called “impingement” and “entrainment”) by between 60 and 95% of existing levels. The reason it did not go further—technology exists which would reduce impingement and entrainment by roughly 100%—is because of what it called the “generally high costs” of installing and operating “closed-cycle cooling” technology or better. It also allowed that some of these Phase II plants could seek variances if their costs were “significantly greater” than the reference case in the rulemaking.

I’ll lay aside a pet peeve of mine that was hammered home yet again in Entergy (that the Supreme Court has repeatedly held that a statute which does not rule out cost benefit analysis normally leaves the choice to the agency and that agencies normally choose to employ it) and instead reach for some optimism. The Phase II rulemaking was done with a sham of a cost/benefit balancing analysis. The costs of impingement and entrainment were backgrounded and discounted while the costs of mandatory closed-cycle cooling retrofits were inflated and foregrounded. But doesn’t this just reflect the identity of the analysts? Had the Bush EPA actually weighed all of the costs and risks of continuing our cooling water intake practices across some 500 facilities sucking in over 200 billion gallons of the nation’s waters every day, stringent retrofits probably would have seemed to make good sense.

At the very least, and as Justice Breyer said in a partial concurrence/dissent, the analysis EPA actually published was incomplete. Why should the “generally high costs” of a particular technology suffice to categorically preclude its adoption for a category as broad and diverse as “large existing power plants” throughout the U.S.? That seems to ignore the reality that benchmarking these plants against each other will reveal their disparities of performance, disparate market positions, and variable opportunities for improvement. Locking in a performance standard that is based on so coarse a data set will lock out better, finer-grained, comparative information which is always hard to amass at any given moment but which can be collected over time.

An Obama EPA almost certainly recognizes as much. What margin it has to act on this hindsight now that the Phase II rules have been defended all the way to SCOTUS is unclear, though. I hope at least that variances from the Phase II rules won’t be easy to get.

More generally, many progressives have long denounced the opacity of cost- or risk/benefit balancing in general. But transparency is inversely related to complexity and risk/benefit analysis—whether it includes monetized values, discount rates, and statistical lives or not—is inherently complex. So the other factor to keep in mind if you are among the Riverkeepers of the world is that transparency also suffers when agencies behave strategically. And there’s a good argument to be made that they behave most strategically of all when they fear their tough choices made on incomplete information will be reviewed with fine-toothed combs. As the Obama administration reshapes the regulatory review that occurs within the Executive Branch, what we all should be urging is more coordination and cooperation in the production, sharing and refinement of specific, accurate information that is highly dispersed and of uncertain strategic value. Litigation like Entergy v. Riverkeeper shows how hard that is.

Posted by Jamie Colburn

11 comments:

fshfghsf said...

看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,美髮儀器,美髮,儀器,髮型,EMBA,MBA,學位,EMBA,專業認證,認證課程,博士學位,DBA,PHD,在職進修,碩士學位,推廣教育,DBA,進修課程,碩士學位,網路廣告,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,課程介紹,學分班,文憑,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,日式料理, 台北居酒屋,日本料理,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,台北結婚,場地,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,造型系列,學位,牛樟芝,腦磷脂,磷脂絲胺酸,SEO,婚宴,捷運,學區,美髮,儀器,髮型,牛樟芝,腦磷脂,磷脂絲胺酸,看房子,買房子,建商自售,自售,房子,捷運,學區,台北新成屋,台北豪宅,新成屋,豪宅,學位,碩士學位,進修,在職進修, 課程,教育,學位,證照,mba,文憑,學分班,網路廣告,關鍵字廣告,關鍵字,SEO,关键词,网络广告,关键词广告,SEO,关键词,网络广告,关键词广告,SEO,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,台北住宿,國內訂房,台北HOTEL,台北婚宴,飯店優惠,住宿,訂房,HOTEL,飯店,婚宴,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,場地,結婚,場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,婚宴場地,結婚,婚宴場地,推車飲茶,港式點心,尾牙春酒,台北結婚,場地,居酒屋,燒烤,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,美髮,儀器,髮型,小套房,小套房,進修,在職進修,留學,證照,MBA,EMBA,留學,MBA,EMBA,留學,進修,在職進修,牛樟芝,段木,牛樟菇,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,关键词排名,网络营销,網路行銷,關鍵字排名,关键词排名,网络营销,PMP,在職專班,研究所在職專班,碩士在職專班,PMP,證照,在職專班,研究所在職專班,碩士在職專班,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,SEO,廣告,關鍵字,關鍵字排名,網路行銷,網頁設計,網站設計,網站排名,搜尋引擎,網路廣告,EMBA,MBA,PMP
,在職進修,專案管理,出國留學,EMBA,MBA,PMP
,在職進修,專案管理,出國留學,EMBA,MBA,PMP
,在職進修,專案管理,出國留學,婚宴,婚宴,婚宴,婚宴

住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,住宿,民宿,飯宿,旅遊,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,美容,美髮,整形,造型,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,住宿,民宿,飯店,旅遊,美容,美髮,整形,造型,設計,室內設計,裝潢,房地產,進修,在職進修,MBA,EMBA,羅志祥,周杰倫,五月天,蔡依林,林志玲,羅志祥,周杰倫,五月天,蔡依林,林志玲,羅志祥,周杰倫,五月天,蔡依林,羅志祥,周杰倫,五月天,蔡依林

㊣美樂蒂melody咩咩㊣ said...

海綿寶寶小遊戲,視訊美女,海綿寶寶,微整型美容,笑話大全,酒店經紀,,星座運勢,曼雪兒免費小說,十二

星座
,視訊聊天室,星座配對,愛情配對,酒店經紀,愛情運勢,視訊聊天,情色文學,

瘦小腹
,瘦腿,瘦身餐,酒店經紀,笑話,網頁設計,網站設計,酒店兼職,ktv酒店,酒店兼職,兼差打工,酒店上班,酒店經紀,酒店小姐,ktv酒店,兼差打工,酒店上班,酒店經紀,酒店小姐,ktv酒店,酒店兼職,兼差打工,酒店上班,酒店小姐,酒店公關,ktv酒店,酒店兼職,兼差打工,酒店上班,酒店小姐,ktv酒店,酒店兼職,兼差打工,酒店上班,酒店小姐,酒店公關,異性緣

wsty said...

www.eshooes.com .
www.pumafr.com.
www.myshoess.com.
[url=http://www.pumafr.com]puma shoes[/url]
[url=http://www.eshooes.com]chaussures puma[/url]
[url=http://www.myshoess.com]nike air max ltd[/url]

酒店ㄚ君姐姐 said...

酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,
酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,

酒店ㄚ君姐姐 said...

酒店寒假打工,
酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,

酒店ㄚ君姐姐 said...

酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,
酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,
酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,

酒店ㄚ君姐姐 said...

專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,
酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,
酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,酒店經紀人,
菲梵酒店經紀,
酒店經紀,
禮服酒店經紀,
酒店兼職經紀,
便服酒店經紀,
酒店打工經紀,
制服酒店經紀,
專業酒店經紀,
合法酒店經紀,
酒店暑假打工,
酒店寒假打工,

. said...

酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀

酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀酒店經紀

freefun0616 said...

酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店經紀, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店工作, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀,,

gaohui said...

If you're a plus size woman you've probably Moncler noticed that the majority of coats in stores today are moncler veste designed with women that are supposed to be moncler doudoune shaped like a toothpick. It can be difficult to moncler hommes find a coat that not only looks good but also doesn't break the moncler femmes bank. Coats typically cost a lot of money so it's in your doudoune moncler femmes best interest to shop wisely.A lot of women doudoun moncler hommes make the mistake of only thinking about their dress doudoune moncler femmes or skirt when putting together an doudoune moncler hommes outfit. However, it's important to keep in mind that the majoriy of moncler-gilet people are going to see you with a coat on.

jimmychooshoes said...

Christian Louboutin Miss Corset Lace-Up Ankle BootChristian Louboutin Miss Corset Lace-Up Ankle Boot
Christian Louboutin Miss Fast 120 Ankle BootsChristian Louboutin Miss Fast 120 Ankle Boots
Christian Louboutin Miss Fast Plato BlackChristian Louboutin Miss Fast Plato Black
Christian Louboutin Miss Fast Plato BrownChristian Louboutin Miss Fast Plato Brown
Christian Louboutin Miss Fast Plato PurpleChristian Louboutin Miss Fast Plato Purple
Christian Louboutin Moulage 120 shoe bootsChristian Louboutin Moulage 120 shoe boots
Christian Louboutin Moulage 140 shoe bootsChristian Louboutin Moulage 140 shoe boots
Christian Louboutin Moulage Platform Ankle BootsChristian Louboutin Moulage Platform Ankle Boots
Christian Louboutin Moulage Platform Ankle BootsChristian Louboutin Moulage Platform Ankle Boots
Christian Louboutin Multi Booty 140 boots blackChristian Louboutin Multi Booty 140 boots black