Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Shields for Bloggers?

Yesterday's NY Times contained an editorial urging the Senate to take action on a bill---already passed by the House---that would, for the first time, grant federal protection to journalists to protect their sources. As the Times notes, the House version of the bill already permits the shield to be pierced for a criminal investigation or prosecution, where other means of obtaining the information have been exhausted (and in some other circumstances), and that the Senate version might be still more permeable.

Not surprisingly, the Times editorial does not identify what may be a substantial omission from the bill, because it is an omission that does not work against the Times. The bill would only provide protection for people who earn their living as journalists. Here's the definition of a "covered person" from the House bill:
a person who regularly gathers, prepares, collects, photographs, records, writes, edits, reports, or publishes news or information that concerns local, national, or international events or other matters of public interest for dissemination to the public for a substantial portion of the person's livelihood or for substantial financial gain and includes a supervisor, employer, parent, subsidiary, or affiliate of such covered person. [Boldface added by MCD].
Does that include, say, me? I think so, but only because I get paid for my columns on FindLaw's Writ. I "regularly . . . write" about legal issues "for substantial financial gain," and so I'm covered, and presumably that coverage protects me even if the piece I happen to be writing is not "for substantial financial gain," i.e., a blog entry or a law review article for which I'm not paid. So, if this bill becomes law, I can offer confidentiality to a source for a blog entry, but only so long as I'm still writing my FindLaw column.

That's a fairly peculiar rule, although it's not hard to see why the House came up with it. With millions of bloggers out there, some filter is needed to prevent anybody and her uncle from claiming to be a journalist (or "covered person") who is given the extraordinary power to shield sources (at least presumptively) from the prying eyes of the law.

Whether "financial gain" is the right filter is debatable. Do we really want a rule that gives bloggers protection if their blogs have advertising (and enough readers to generate "substantial" revenue) but not if they're simply pro bono? I strongly suspect that "financial gain" is functioning here as a proxy for something like "takes the position seriously." It's a very imperfect proxy but it has the virtue of administrability. Rather than cross-examine a blogger claiming the shield about her intentions, courts applying the shield law could just look at her receipts.

Still, it's at least a little ironic that at just the moment when the institutional/professional press is losing its hold on the generation and dissemination of information, Congress may enact a law that, for the first time at the federal level, distinguishes between the professional press and citizen journalists. Or perhaps the timing is not coincidental at all?

Posted by Mike Dorf

9 comments:

egarber said...

As a Bob Woodward fan, I like to apply what I call the "Mark Felt" test to these rules: does a potential source / whistleblower see a bright enough line in the framework to come forward with something crucial?

If the answer is no -- i.e., it's just too fuzzy to take a risk -- such laws might actually cause more harm than good. It seems pretty clear that conventional journalists like Woodward would be protected, so Watergate would have still broken (arguably). But is it good for democracy if sources never feel confortable revealing information to bloggers, who more and more are becoming "reporters"?

I guess my bigger point is that these laws should be about protecting our democracy, so they must be viewed from the perspective of a potential source, not just the "journalist".

egarber said...

As a follow-up, I understand that in Branzburg, the SCOTUS found that there was *not* a First Amendment right to protect sources in criminal cases. Has it ever directly ruled on whether there's a right in civil cases?

Michael C. Dorf said...

In response to Eric's second question, the lower courts routinely interpret Branzburg as barring any federal reporter-source privilege in civil cases, and the S Ct has never suggested that this is a mistaken interpretation. State shield laws are all over the map.

路傑 said...

免費A片, ut聊天室, AV女優, 美女視訊, 免費成人影片, 成人論壇, 情色交友, 免費AV, 線上a片, 日本美女寫真集, 同志聊天室, 聊天室交友, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 色情網站, 辣妹視訊, 美女交友, 微風成人區, 色美媚部落格, 色情影片, 成人影片, 成人網站, 免費A片, 上班族聊天室, A片,H漫, 18成人, a漫, av dvd, 一夜情聊天室, 微風成人, 成人圖片, 成人漫畫, 情色網, 日本A片, 免費A片下載, 性愛, 成人交友, 嘟嘟成人網, 嘟嘟成人網, 成人貼圖, 成人電影, 成人, 中部人聊天室, 080中部人聊天室, 成人貼圖, 成人小說, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 免費成人影片, 成人遊戲, 微風成人, 愛情公寓, 成人電影, A片, 情色, 情色貼圖, 情色文學, 做愛, 成人遊戲, 成人影城, 色情聊天室, 色情小說, 一葉情貼圖片區, 情色小說, 色情, 寄情築園小遊戲, 色情遊戲, 成人網站, 麗的色遊戲, 色情網站, 成人論壇, 情色視訊, 情色電影, aio交友愛情館, 言情小說, 愛情小說, 色情A片, 情色論壇, 自拍, 癡漢, , 俱樂部, 豆豆聊天室, 聊天室, 色情影片, 視訊聊天室, 免費視訊聊天, 免費視訊, 視訊交友90739 情人視訊網影音視訊聊天室 免費視訊聊天室 視訊聊天 視訊交友 美女視訊 視訊美女 視訊 免費視訊 免費視訊聊天 視訊聊天室 辣妹視訊 一夜情 色情a片 aio交友愛情館 情色電影 情色視訊 色情遊戲 色情 情色小說 一葉情貼圖片區 色情小說 色情聊天室 情色交友 成人論壇 成人網站 色情網站 情色論壇 小高聊天室 女同志聊天室 6K聊天室 080苗栗人聊天室 080聊天室 聊天室尋夢園 UT男同志聊天室 男同志聊天室 尋夢園聊天室 UT聊天室 聊天室 豆豆聊天室 A片 成人電影 成人貼圖 嘟嘟成人網 美女交友 本土自拍 成人交友 成人影片http://ssff01.3b8mm.com/

kutyhgvd said...

I always heard something from my neighbor that he sometimes goes to the internet bar to play the game which will use him some gw gold,he usually can win a lot of GuildWars Gold,then he let his friends all have some Guild Wars Gold,his friends thank him very much for introducing them the GuildWars money,they usually cheap gw gold together.

. said...

酒店喝酒,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,制服店,便服店,鋼琴酒吧,兼差,酒店兼差,酒店打工,伴唱小姐,暑假打工,酒店上班,日式酒店,舞廳,ktv酒店,酒店,酒店公關,酒店小姐,理容院,日領,龍亨,學生兼差,酒店兼差,酒店上班,酒店打工,禮服酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,經紀 彩色爆米花,經紀人 彩色爆米花,酒店傳播,酒店經紀 彩色爆米花,爆米花,童裝,童裝拍賣,童裝大盤,童裝寄賣,童裝批貨,酒店,酒店,童裝切貨,酒店,GAP童裝,酒店,酒店 ,禮服店 , 酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,招待所,

wsty said...

www.eshooes.com .
www.pumafr.com.
www.myshoess.com.
[url=http://www.pumafr.com]puma shoes[/url]
[url=http://www.eshooes.com]chaussures puma[/url]
[url=http://www.myshoess.com]nike air max ltd[/url]

酒店經紀ㄚ君姐姐 said...

,,姐.,便服/,,

freefun0616 said...

酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店經紀, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店工作, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀,,