Wednesday, March 26, 2008

More Medellin Musings

Justice Breyer's dissent in Medellin v. Texas provides textual, historical and practical grounds to reject the majority's presumption that, absent language to the contrary, a treaty should be deemed non-self-executing. As I noted yesterday (here), Breyer's best point is a straightforward reading of the Supremacy Clause, which makes treaties "the supreme Law of the Land." But in addition to the points made by Justice Breyer, another argument has been advanced by critics of the Medellin ruling. Here is what my colleague Lori Damrosch, quoted in USA Today, had to say:
The court admits that the international judgment is binding on the United States in international law, but it does not accept that the courts of Texas are bound to carry it out. ... This perplexing result will make it more difficult for the United States to insist on compliance by other states … under the Vienna Convention and under the provisions of at least 70 other (comparable) treaties.
Why is this a "perplexing result?" As even Justice Breyer's dissent explains, many other countries treat treaties as non-self-executing as well. Quoting Justice Story, Breyer explains that our Supremacy Clause marked a change from British practice. So, while one can agree with Breyer that Medellin wrongly interprets the U.S. law of foreign relations, that shouldn't make the result perplexing to other countries.

Professor Damrosch is probably right that the bottom line in Medellin will make it more difficult to extract reciprocal compliance from other signatories to the Vienna Convention and comparable treaties. But presumably that's because Congress has failed to enact implementing legislation, not because the Court has required it to do so. And that points to the real problem here: The absence of implementing legislation for many treaties that would, under the majority test in Medellin, require implementing legislation, means that the U.S. is probably in breach of its treaty obligations to a much greater extent than its treaty partners. In countries in which it was generally known that treaties required implementing legislation, we can expect a practice of consistently enacting such implementing legislation to have arisen. The U.S., lacking such a practice, is thus now more likely to be in breach.

What can Congress do? Justice Breyer says in his Medellin dissent that it can't simply adopt a rule implementing all ICJ rulings, because some of them will be sufficiently sensitive that they shouldn't be self-executing. Perhaps, but consider as an alternative a rule of treaty construction, to be codified as an amendment to the Dictionary Act (1 U.S.C. sec. 1, et seq), providing as follows: "Treaties shall be presumed to be self-executing, unless the express text or subject matter and context as a whole make them inappropriate for self-execution."

Posted by Mike Dorf

9 comments:

Caleb said...

How far does your proposal really go though? If the majority felt that this was important enough to find that the Vienna Convention non-self-executing, aren't they just going to find that every treaty is sufficiently important?

Justin said...

Michael,

But treaties aren't Acts of Congress. Although an Act of Congress can implement a treaty, it can no more create a canon of interpretation applicalbe to treaties than could an Executive Order create a canon of interpretation applicable to statutes (prospectively).

Bob Moss said...

I've been poking around the web a bit, and haven't found any indication that anyone realizes that the majority opinion in Medellin can only understood as bad faith exercise in legislating from the bench. It's the culmination of a complete reversal of two centuries of case law on the topic of self execution, begun in the late 1990s in the lower courts. Our case law clearly defined a self-executing treaty provision as one that defined a rule by which the rights of individuals could be determined. Moreover, Roberts holds that "jurisdiction" does not mean the power to enforce decisions, whereas our case law clearly and explicitly says it does. If the Supreme Court can cavalierly change this law, it can cavalierly change any law.

路傑 said...

免費A片, ut聊天室, AV女優, 美女視訊, 免費成人影片, 成人論壇, 情色交友, 免費AV, 線上a片, 日本美女寫真集, 同志聊天室, 聊天室交友, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 色情網站, 辣妹視訊, 美女交友, 微風成人區, 色美媚部落格, 色情影片, 成人影片, 成人網站, 免費A片, 上班族聊天室, A片,H漫, 18成人, a漫, av dvd, 一夜情聊天室, 微風成人, 成人圖片, 成人漫畫, 情色網, 日本A片, 免費A片下載, 性愛, 成人交友, 嘟嘟成人網, 嘟嘟成人網, 成人貼圖, 成人電影, 成人, 中部人聊天室, 080中部人聊天室, 成人貼圖, 成人小說, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 免費成人影片, 成人遊戲, 微風成人, 愛情公寓, 成人電影, A片, 情色, 情色貼圖, 情色文學, 做愛, 成人遊戲, 成人影城, 色情聊天室, 色情小說, 一葉情貼圖片區, 情色小說, 色情, 寄情築園小遊戲, 色情遊戲, 成人網站, 麗的色遊戲, 色情網站, 成人論壇, 情色視訊, 情色電影, aio交友愛情館, 言情小說, 愛情小說, 色情A片, 情色論壇, 自拍, 癡漢, , 俱樂部, 豆豆聊天室, 聊天室, 色情影片, 視訊聊天室, 免費視訊聊天, 免費視訊, 視訊交友90739 情人視訊網影音視訊聊天室 免費視訊聊天室 視訊聊天 視訊交友 美女視訊 視訊美女 視訊 免費視訊 免費視訊聊天 視訊聊天室 辣妹視訊 一夜情 色情a片 aio交友愛情館 情色電影 情色視訊 色情遊戲 色情 情色小說 一葉情貼圖片區 色情小說 色情聊天室 情色交友 成人論壇 成人網站 色情網站 情色論壇 小高聊天室 女同志聊天室 6K聊天室 080苗栗人聊天室 080聊天室 聊天室尋夢園 UT男同志聊天室 男同志聊天室 尋夢園聊天室 UT聊天室 聊天室 豆豆聊天室 A片 成人電影 成人貼圖 嘟嘟成人網 美女交友 本土自拍 成人交友 成人影片http://ssff01.3b8mm.com/

kutyhgvd said...

I am so happy to get some hero gold and the hero online gold is given by my close friend who tells me that the hero online money is the basis to enter into the game. Therefore, I should buy hero gold with the spare money and I gain some hero money from other players.

. said...

酒店喝酒,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,制服店,便服店,鋼琴酒吧,兼差,酒店兼差,酒店打工,伴唱小姐,暑假打工,酒店上班,日式酒店,舞廳,ktv酒店,酒店,酒店公關,酒店小姐,理容院,日領,龍亨,學生兼差,酒店兼差,酒店上班,酒店打工,禮服酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,經紀 彩色爆米花,經紀人 彩色爆米花,酒店傳播,酒店經紀 彩色爆米花,爆米花,童裝,童裝拍賣,童裝大盤,童裝寄賣,童裝批貨,酒店,酒店,童裝切貨,酒店,GAP童裝,酒店,酒店 ,禮服店 , 酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,招待所,

wsty said...

www.eshooes.com .
www.pumafr.com.
www.myshoess.com.
[url=http://www.pumafr.com]puma shoes[/url]
[url=http://www.eshooes.com]chaussures puma[/url]
[url=http://www.myshoess.com]nike air max ltd[/url]

酒店經紀ㄚ君姐姐 said...

,,姐.,便服/,,

freefun0616 said...

酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店經紀, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店工作, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀,,