Wednesday, March 18, 2009

PDAs in the Courtroom

A NY Times story recounts the problem of jurors using PDAs when in the courtroom---and home computers when out of court but not sequestered---both to find out information on the case that is not formally part of the evidence and to post info about the case to others (via email, twitter, etc). Both such activities violate the jurors' obligations.

The article mentions two things courts can do to stem the tide of outside influence and communications to the outside world: 1) Issue warnings with better explanations for the prohibitions; 2) Confiscate PDAs and cell-phones. Presumably number 2 would be necessary for those undeterred by the better explanations of number 1, and for this incorrigible lot, one would have to think about greater use of sequestration. An additional option would be to increase the penalties for jurors who seek outside info or transmit confidential info during the course of the case. Voir dire could also seek to weed out crackberries and the like---although given the incentive people already have to try to avoid jury service, adding a set of potentially disqualifying questions of the form "can you really not Google the defendant?" would encourage more bogus excuses.

Before rushing into any such changes, however, it would be useful to know just how large the problem is. The Times story does not say, offering only this: "There appears to be no official tally of cases disrupted by Internet research, but with the increasing adoption of Web technology in cellphones, the numbers are sure to grow." Even if that's true, we would want to know whether technology poses an especially troubling instance of jurors disregarding the rules. For example, how often do jurors disregard a judge's instruction to draw no adverse inference from a defendant's failure to testify, knowing---as many of them do from watching crime dramas---that a defendant who does not testify may well be trying to prevent the jury from learning of his criminal record? Is this a bigger or smaller problem than the use of PDAs, etc?

Finally, it's worth thinking about the rules of evidence themselves. Sure, individual juries shouldn't be overriding the law about what is or is not admissible on a case-by-case basis, but if jurors have a hard time following the rules, that may be because the rules are, at least in some respect, wrong-headed. To name only one of the most famous, the "dying declaration" exception to the hearsay exclusion is premised on the dubious view that people about to die are especially unlikely to lie about the cause of their death. More broadly, if the rules of evidence excluded less probative evidence, we would have less reasion to worry about jurors seeking that evidence elsewhere. That's not to say that we shouldn't be worried about jurors turning to unreliable sources of information, but only to point out that some of the concern here is that jurors are going outside of the formal legal structure of the trial the better to get at the truth.

Posted by Mike Dorf

16 comments:

egarber said...

but only to point out that some of the concern here is that jurors are going outside of the formal legal structure of the trial the better to get at the truth.

But of course it's not the jury's role to seek the truth as an independent fact-finding commission; it's the state's job to prove its case, given rules on permissibility, etc., that are designed to protect defendants. The whole system is intended to ensure that the state carries the burden (at least in criminal cases), even *if* there is something out there that could bolster its case.

Obviously, this isn't a breakthrough observation on my part. I'm merely posing that even "truth-seeking" isn't necessarily innocuous.

Howard Wasserman said...

I am confused by your end point. Is it that the rules of evidence are wrong-headed because they exclude too much probative information, causing jurors to look for such information on their own? If so, your example of a wrong-headed rule--the dying declaration exception--does not illustrate the point, because its wrong-headedness is in allowing *more* evidence.

Or is your point that all the rules are skewed, thus jurors do not trust what does *and* does not come in, thus jurors go off on their own in search of information. If so, that point seems counter-intuitive: "The rules allow in some wrong-headed evidence, so I am going off to look for more stuff."

Michael C. Dorf said...

Eric: I agree that some rules of evidence and procedure either impede the truth-finding function of a trial or serve purposes unrelated to truth-finding. The difficult burden of proof in a criminal case is a good example of the former. However, some rules of evidence purport to be about structuring the search for truth but actually do a very poor job of that, because they are based on accumulated folk wisdom or out-of-date assumptions. The dying declaration exception to hearsay is an example of the former; the methods of "authenticating" documents and photographs prescribed by the evidence rules are, in some circumstances, an example of the latter.

Michael C. Dorf said...

My reply to Eric should serve as a reply to Howard too, but let me add this: I was not offering a JUSTIFICATION for jurors looking up information about the case on Google. I was suggesting that the fact that they do so may tell us about jurors' perception that reliable evidence is being omitted and unreliable evidence is being presented. To the extent that this perception is accurate and the evidence rules are not in fact serving their intended functions, or are doing so at too high a cost, the behavior of jurors should prompt us to re-examine the rules.

Sobek said...

"To the extent that this perception is accurate and the evidence rules are not in fact serving their intended functions, or are doing so at too high a cost, the behavior of jurors should prompt us to re-examine the rules."

Unless the jurors' behavior is based on flawed perceptions of the evidence rules.

Hypothetical Juror J is in a murder trial. She doesn't think she's getting the full story, so one night she goes home and googles Defendant's name. She discovers that D was convicted of 54 counts of assualt and battery on a bus full of nuns and orphans three years ago! Well then, obviously D is a scumbag, and a violent person, and therefore more likely to have committed the murder. J has just validated her perception that the evidence rules are broken, because a bad guy went to jail.

Of course, anyone who has taken an evidence class knows why J shouldn't hear evidence of prior bad acts, why her reasoning is flawed, and why D now deserves a mistrial.

If the evidence rules are wrong-headed -- and I think some of them are (I managed to out-liberal my very liberal professor on one point) -- they should be changed. But not because an unknown number of jurors can't stay away from Facebook until the end of the trial.

Paul Scott said...

Is this a form of nullification? That is, the Jurors are told what is probative and what is not. They disagree and seek out their own sources of information. Is there (probably, but I think it is not simple) a reason to approve of juries ignoring the substantive law but not approve of jurors ignoring the rules of evidence when they feel justice demands it?

Howard Wasserman said...

(Sorry in advance for the repeat--the first one did not post).

The legal system do not "approve" of jury nullification--the court does not instruct on it and parties typically are not permitted to argue it. The difference is that we cannot specifically instruct against it (purportedly because it would come too close to controlling fact-finding against the accused)and cannot control it when it happens (because once the jury finds for the accused, the case must end). But we can both instruct against jurors seeking extra-record information and do something when it happens.

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