Thursday, November 20, 2008

Quantum of Solace

If we have the power, we ought to alleviate suffering. This is a proposition that unites talk about bailouts, abortion, veganism, whales and sonar, and, indeed, virtually everything on which people disagree and then claim their opponents are in the wrong. Over the years, Dorf on Law has produced compelling arguments about all of the aforementioned (OK—maybe not the whales, but I gave it a shot). But it remains, in my mind, beyond our power to convince people of very much at all about suffering in politics—at least if they aren’t already predisposed to hear you out and decide afresh. Many minds means many disparate calculations about how much suffering, how much power, and the value of action in the uncertain and imperfect world we actually inhabit. Seems trite to say out loud—but the devil is in the details (of persuasion).

Take veganism. It is one step beyond “vegetarianism” properly understood because it also rules dairy products like milk out of one’s diet (among other things). As Neil pointed out in his excellent post on the subject, vegans won’t drink milk at least in part because of the way in which dairy cows are treated: they are kept perpetually pregnant and the calves that result become the very same victims that eating veal creates. The increment of suffering that is caused, at least in an attenuated fashion, by one’s purchasing milk is reason enough not to do so for vegans. But now imagine trying to persuade someone else with that increment. What about the dairy farmers your practice will put out of business, assuming it catches on? What kind of suffering will that cause? Are humans capable of deeper, more affectual suffering than the calves milk-drinkers are torturing? If so, how many farmers out of business would it take to cancel out the small contribution to calf-suffering your drinking milk is causing? A high ratio? A low ratio? Even the pioneers in comparative ethology like Donald Griffin never argued that animal suffering is just like human suffering. Grow up in farm country and watch farmers’ kids live in poverty if you think this isn’t real or causal.

Another objector might calculate that what we really need is a synthetic bovine hormone which induces lactation in non-pregnant cows. Not buying milk will do little on that score. You might better work for stem cell research funding; go to work on Tom Daschle this person concludes. Others would expect that that improved system would still generate some cruelty and question the strategy for that reason.

Still others would (rightly, in my view) worry about the greenhouse gas spikes and other environmental costs of switching lots of rich consumers to an exclusively plant diet. Brazil’s loss of rainforest sped up incredibly as soy and other agricultural commodity prices jumped (deflation does has some advantages, although I haven’t heard anyone predict serious drops in bushel prices yet). Would greater demand for soy-as-food extend such trends? It’s hard to say. Want to alleviate a lot of primate suffering? Stop the bushmeat trade . . . somehow. Every ounce of effort you put into veganism is effort you can’t put into ending the bushmeat trade—unless you’ve somehow found a way to eliminate the opportunity costs that every meaningful action entails.

These kinds of practical conundrums are probably what give us milquetoast (forgive the pun) measures like Proposition 2—which pass by wide margins I might add.

In my experience, the closer you get to practical certainty on suffering averted, the quicker people are to hear you out and decide afresh. Hence the ease with which you can convince someone to go buy something that will make them happier (hence, advertising). Certainty about one’s own person is much easier to come by than certainty about systemic questions and the value of actions in dynamic systems. The suffering people imagine in their own lives from giving up every single animal-based product stunts the ranks of veganism for sure. This makes a lot of arguments about consumer activism into ultimately unsatisfying affairs.

And it is what makes me think that politicking on climate change won’t get us very far as long as it’s consequentialist in nature. There are too many points at which parts of any coalition will predictably peel off (even in good faith) because of the likely suffering of lives in being from making changes with short-term economic consequences. As others have argued at length lately, the future will almost certainly be richer than us, right? (Incidentally, if we can’t quantify so much of what makes Earth Earth, why do we really think this? We are almost certainly leaving the future a biotically impoverished Earth.) Arguments about meaningful action on climate change are too easily bogged down not to think seriously about shifting the political focus to aesthetics, poetics, and other, similar sorts of reasons for action. Our problem going forward on climate change is as much or more about communications and calculations as it is about greed and selfishness. If you’re going to talk about suffering, though, I say be prepared for a fight.

Posted by Jamie Colburn


Michael C. Dorf said...

(Here's a very long comment which I'll repeat as a freestanding post tomorrow).

I disagree with nearly everything Jamie says here, as well as many of the things he simply assumes. Let's begin with the main point: That it’s hard to persuade people to change their behavior because they have different perspectives and different life experiences. Hard, yes, but hardly impossible. Persuading people is what successful movements for social justice accomplish. We are in the midst of a pretty dramatic one in the way people think about sexual orientation, which is markedly different from how people thought just 20 years ago and certainly 50 years ago.

So perhaps what Jamie means is that it’s hard to persuade people to make sacrifices for others, especially others with whom they feel no particular kinship. After all, despite the rhetoric of “protecting” marriage, according fully equal rights to members of the LGBT community doesn’t really cost straight people anything. By contrast, getting people to give up steak and even pizza? Now that’s a sacrifice!

Well, yes and no. If we assume that people only act out of self-interest, then veganism or something like it can be sold based on its health benefits. And I certainly agree, indeed I’ve said on this blog, that organizations like Farm Sanctuary ought to be devoting much of their budget to marketing attractive vegan alternatives to meat and dairy products.

But Jamie apparently goes further to suggest that one will encounter moral opposition to pleas about suffering, and here he simply errs. To wit:

1) Jamie wonders whether demand for soy as food might accelerate the conversion of Brazilian rain forest to agriculture. He cannot be serious. To produce feed for beef or dairy cattle requires orders of magnitude more land for cultivation than is required to produce vegetable products for direct human consumption. And that is simply a matter of calories per acre under cultivation. Raising beef and dairy cattle also produces vast quantities of methane gas, which, pound for pound, is much worse for global warming than CO2. Other animal-based food industries (such as pig farming and the raising of chickens for eggs or meat) produce their own environmental problems, to say nothing of the potential for breeding lethal strains of influenza. Even if one had no regard whatsoever for the welfare of non-human animals, the environmental case for a plant-based human diet would be compelling.

2) Jamie asks how we measure the suffering of calves against the suffering of the families of dairy farmers who would lose their livelihood if everyone went vegan. I’ll answer this question momentarily but first let me point out that he has improperly framed it. Am I morally responsible for the suffering of the families of laid off GM auto workers if I decide that instead of buying a new Buick I’m going to ride the bus? If one is a thoroughgoing utilitarian, sure, because thoroughgoing utilitarians do not respect the act/omission distinction. But this is no way to lead your life. It makes you morally complicit in all suffering that you could alleviate by reducing your standard of living to subsistence levels and donating every other penny you have to benefit others. A much more common and sensible way to understand the moral consequences of one’s actions is to ask what are the direct effects of the small number of things you choose to do, not the infinite number of things you choose not to do. By choosing to consume dairy products, you participate in the veal industry.

3) Perhaps I have misread Jamie and what he means to say is only that I’ll have a hard time persuading the marginal dairy farmer that he should become a vegan or that my veganism is, all things considered, morally appropriate. But then we are simply back to the claim that it is hard to persuade people of things that are not in their interest. I don’t doubt that dairy farmers would like there to be a dairy industry, just as I don’t doubt that corn farmers like government subsidies for growing corn. The vast majority of my fellow citizens are not farmers, however, and I thought the point Jamie was making had to do with the effectiveness of moral arguments.

4) Now back to the philosophical question. Jamie says that “Donald Griffin never argued that animal suffering is just like human suffering.” Well, why not? Is there any evidence that the animals with whom we share the same basic biology and neurochemistry have qualitatively different experiences of physical pain and (at least in the case of most vertebrates) emotional distress that we do? Is Jamie appealing to Creationism? Undoubtedly, we humans think we have reason to prefer our own wellbeing, just as parents have actor-relative reasons to prefer the wellbeing of their children to those of other children. I would even concede that this should count for quite a bit on the positive side. Thus, I don’t think we have a moral obligation to provide the sort of education for gorillas and chimps that would enable them to obtain gainful employment; but that hardly means we can prefer our welfare to theirs to the point of affirmatively harming them by, for example, injecting them with H.I.V. I learned today that it may be possible to create a mammoth from preserved DNA. Suppose that 2 million years from now our super-advanced descendants use such a technology to re-create 21st Century humans: Would our suffering count for less than the future beings because they are so much smarter than we are/were?

5) Jamie also asserts: “Every ounce of effort you put into veganism is effort you can’t put into ending the bushmeat trade—unless you’ve somehow found a way to eliminate the opportunity costs that every meaningful action entails.” This is absurd. Veganism is simply eating, an activity we all do every day. Yes, I probably spend a few more minutes in the supermarket than most omnivores because I need to read ingredients lists, and true, I have to buy my belts and shoes online to get good looking synthetic leather. But are these added minutes per month going to interfere in any way with my ability to make an annual donation to the International Primate Protection League? In fact, the sort of person who thinks about the moral consequences of her diet and clothing is likely to be more, not less, concerned with such practices as the hideous bushmeat trade.

One final point about persuasion: With the exception of Jains, very few current vegans were raised that way. I came to this view because I was persuaded by appeals to reason and emotion, which is pretty much how all human decisions are made. (The emotional centers of the brain are essential to decision making.) I do not consider myself an especially moral person. In fact, I can be sort of a jerk. So if it worked on me, it can work on others.

Michael Bishop said...

Yes, utilitarianism leads to fairly extreme conclusions about how we should live. But this is not a justification for throwing out utilitarianism. I believe we should live to maximize the welfare of current and future sentient beings, with some sort of higher weight given to more sentient beings and some preference for greater equality.

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