Monday, November 24, 2008

How Quickly Can Social Norms Change?

I have always believed that people are extraordinarily stubborn, that far too often they do not change their attitudes in response to reasoned arguments, and that efforts to get people to become more enlightened are doomed to fail. On the other hand, evidence of progress in social attitudes is all around us. (Bear baiting, anyone?) Upon reflection, therefore, I realize that I have a similarly deep intuitive sense that people's attitudes can be changed both by reasoned arguments and -- perhaps more powerfully -- by social pressure, as changes in attitudes take on a certain momentum.

In an exchange last week, Jamison Colburn (here) and Michael Dorf (here) disagreed strongly about the likelihood of changes in social attitudes regarding veganism, a disagreement which was ultimately revealed to be a difference of opinion about when and how social attitudes can change. In this post, I'll offer a few examples to suggest that Prof. Colburn's hypothesis is only weakly supported by a broad range of evidence.

One of the key questions about veganism is whether it is difficult or easy to be a vegan. In one of my posts over the summer discussing my conversion to veganism, I suggested that it was too difficult to be a vegan in the U.S. today. ("[T]he U.S. economy makes it difficult -- but by no means prohibitive -- to be a vegan.") Four months on, I am happy to report that the learning curve does not take long to climb. The biggest issue for me was simply changing certain mental defaults: not buying M&M's or buttered popcorn at the movies, ordering soy lattes instead of skim lattes, etc. There are still some rather basic policies that could make it easier to be a vegan and that would have the effect of making people less intimidated by the prospect of checking the ingredients in prepared foods, but the good news is that there is now rarely a day when I need to think consciously about these decisions.

The question, however, is not whether people can change their minds, but whether there are identifiable types of ingrained attitudes that are easier to change than others. In a comment on Mike's post, Jamie clarified his "actual point: the closer you get to practical certainty on suffering, the more likely people are to hear you out and decide afresh." Part of the difficulty in assessing this argument lies in whether "practical certainty" means that suffering is "statitistically certain" or rather "certain in the minds of real people" (i.e., salient). Let's think through a few examples of extremely rapid changes in social attitudes that might shed light on this question.

- Domestic Violence: I recently watched a rerun of the 60's sitcom "The Dick Van Dyke Show." The story revolved around a woman who was drawn to a man because he was a mean drunk, bringing out her "maternal" side. The final line of the episode had one character saying to another: "You know what we should do? Go home and hit our wives." Raucous laughter, upbeat theme music, roll credits. It goes without saying that this is shocking to us today. In fact, it would have been shocking only 10-15 years after the show was aired, because of a rapid and widespread public acceptance of a new norm condemning violence against women, changing laws about marital rape, etc. (This fight is still depressingly not yet won, but the changes in attitudes are nothing short of amazing across much of our society.) Is this change in attitudes because of "practical certainty on suffering"? There is no question that the victims of domestic violence are identifiable and that the suffering is certain, but I find it hard to believe that this is the key to the change. The key seems to lie in one's attitudes about whose suffering counts at all as a matter of public concern. Still, this example offers at least some support for Jamie's thesis.

-- Alcohol Use and Drunk Driving: In the late 1980's, I tried to order an iced tea at a bar near Boston. The bartender literally berated me for wasting his time; then he dropped a tea bag in a class of iced water and charged me a dollar. Today, that kind of attitude would cost the guy his job. It took only a few years after that before social attitudes about drinking -- and especially drinking and driving -- changed. Before then, drunk driving was a matter of bravado and joking. ("I was so drunk last night that I was driving home 'by Braille.'") Today, bars and liquor companies sponsor designated driver programs, etc. Is this explained by "practical certainty on suffering"? Again, there is no doubt that people suffer when a drunk driver causes an accident. We are now, however, one step removed, because the now-displaced attitudes about drunk driving were that "I can drive drunk without hurting anyone." Driving drunk may have a statistical certainty of causing suffering, but one cannot explain changes in public attitudes about the harms of drunk driving by reference to this certainty. It might now seem obvious that people equate drunk driving with certain death, but that was definitely not true at the time that the attitudes were changing.

- Smoking: Perhaps the most astonishing change in social attitudes in the last 25 years or so has to do with smoking. When I quit smoking in 1985, smoking was so widely accepted that a non-smoking host was affirmatively expected to have ashtrays in her home to accommodate smokers. Asking a non-smoker not to smoke in one's car elicited a sarcastic retort. Within only a few years, it was a given among the large majority of the American population that smoking is a sign of bad manners at best. Every airport and airplane is smoke-free. More and more cities are adopting laws banning smoking in bars, restaurants, etc.

The change in social attitudes about smoking has been, pardon the pun, breath-taking. Is this because of "practical certainty of suffering"? Again, there is something to this, but this story seems to fit best ex post. There was a lot of resistance to the very idea of second-hand smoke being a health hazard. The driving force in this social change seems to have been more a matter of deciding who had the right to force other people to do what they wanted. This may have been caused by concerns about suffering, but from my perspective it seemed to be more about attitudes toward public cleanliness. Smoking came to be seen as ugly, not dangerous (which people had known even before the surgeon general's report in the 60's).

-- The Environment: Is there a better example of a changed social attitude than the environmental movement? In the late 60's and 70's, it was a big deal to convince people that littering was harmful. Now, widespread recycling is the norm in many areas of the country, people buy and lease hybrid cars that cost more than non-hybrids, and politicians run on green platforms. Even conglomerates regularly run green campaigns. Is this because of the practical certainty of suffering? It's hard to see how. Even those of us who strongly support stronger environmental policies admit that we do not know whether and how much these policies will help. There is at least some possibility that it's already too late, yet people seem willing -- surprisingly so, from a narrow utility-maximizing perspective -- to sacrifice in the name of environmental responsibility. The most impressive change in social attitudes in the last few decades, therefore, is the one that is least directly tied to certain suffering.

Which brings us back to veganism. (I am leaving out other large but less than complete sea changes in social attitudes about homosexuality, gay marriage, etc.) It is true that the step from vegetarianism to veganism involves a recognition of suffering that is not obvious (the necessary connection to torture and killing in the production of veal, the "beaking" of chickens, etc.) The suffering from meat-eating itself, however, is deliberately hidden from our view. The difference is not between the practical certainty that suffering is connected to meat eating and less practical certainty that suffering is connected to dairy products. If, on the other hand, one were to say that practical certainty means "salient certainty," then we're back to the would-be drunk drivers who feel absolutely certain that they will not cause suffering. The step from vegetarianism to veganism, therefore, is not about practical certainty of suffering but of knowledge of that literal certainty.

The big issue is, as Mike characterized it, whether the following statement is true: "That it’s hard to persuade people to change their behavior because they have different perspectives and different life experiences." Change is always difficult. The evidence of the largest changes in social attitudes over the last few decades, however, strongly suggests that social persuasion is a lot more possible than we think. I look forward to the day when meat (and dairy) eating joins bear baiting as a cynical aside -- something so obviously grotesque that we can no longer believe that people ever did it.

-- Posted by Neil H. Buchanan

21 comments:

Sherry F. Colb said...

Fabulous post, Neil. The suffering inflicted when we purchase milk and eggs is certain, but it is even more well) hidden from view than the (also well hidden) suffering of the animals who are killed and eaten. As one expert described it, "there is more suffering in a glass of milk than in a steak," but most people don't know this (and those who do know it suppress the knowledge pretty stubbornly). As a former "just vegetarian" myself, the idea that being a vegetarian but not a vegan substantially reduces animal suffering had "truthiness" to it, no matter how false. The investment most people have in eating their pizza and omlets facilitates the work of farmers, who are only too happy to picture happy cows on milk containers and comfortable chickens on egg crates.

Jamison Colburn said...

I agree that this was an excellent redux. In my view "practical certainty" on suffering includes at least two distinct dimensions: (1) the suffering that is morally considerable; and (2) the certainty that suffering will result from one's actions. A third dimension could be added here, especially for consequences like smoking and that is: (3) necessarily. Many people who smoke(d) don't contract lung cancer or other respiratory diseases which are provably the result of their smoking and many people smoke and cannot truthfully be called the cause of someone else's respiratory disease (speaking as the child of two chain smokers). Similarly, many people eat eggs that are not the product of horrific conditions. "Certified Humane," battery cage free farms where chickens aren't beaked would, if mainstreamed, eliminate more cruelty from the world--I'd wager--than all of the persuasion toward veganism that any of us will muster over what's left of our generation. This is the same debate about possible futures that greens have when architecture is the subject and mainstream enhancement vehicles like LEED (which are consensus-based, proven technology driven standards for new construction) are compared to more ambitious and challenging standards that only 5% of new buildings will attain. I certainly don't have a uniquely rational answer to such debates (and never claimed to). I did, however, suggest--and still believe, despite folks' powerful arguments to the contrary--that convincing people to change their lives so as to alleviate suffering from which they are far removed, either causally or otherwise, is a tricky, laborious, and ultimately uncertain enterprise having much less to do with reason than we all would like to think.

Gary said...

I would point out that so many of these social changes have been led by liberals, with conservatives only following, if at all, much later. Civil rights, women's rights, gay acceptance (still working on the rights), environmental concerns, etc. All began as liberal causes, and the liberals prevailed. Veganism is just beginning. I can't even think of a social change where conservatives led the way, which fits with the definition of conservative.

So, where different perspectives and different life experiences are factors, liberals are more willing to look beyond their own lives and empathize with, or at least accept, others. As Mark Twain said, travel is fatal to prejudice and bigotry. I would expand this to all social issues, and expand the definition of travel to mean not just physical traveling, but exposing oneself to experiences, situations, or ways of thinking that are outside of one's own. When I hear about political changes following demographic shifts like more people moving to the cities, is that because people become more liberal when the move into urban areas, or is just self-selection? Are social changes catalyzed by exposing more people to the changes in non-threatening situations? I also wonder whether a conservative who accepts social change in one area is more amenable to change in another area.

Sherry F. Colb said...

Just a brief correction to something that Jamie said. "Cage free" farming does not in fact eliminate cruelty at all, so it is hardly accurate to say that consuming "cage free" or "free range" eggs would eliminate more cruelty than persuading people to become vegans. The birds can be (and still are) piled into extremely small spaces, though without cages, and all are ultimately slaughtered (with the trip to slaughter being hideously crowded and not at all "cage free"). In addition, anyone who farms eggs destroys the male chicks who are born from the females (much as anyone who runs a dairy farm destroys the male calves who are born from the pregnant cow). These male chickens are destroyed as baby chicks, and no care is taken to avoiding their suffering (they are buried, gassed, dropped into wood-chippers, etc.). The various labels (cruelty free/humanely raised, etc.) are hardly regulated and are permissibly applied no matter what the process of slaughter and no matter how hideous the treatment of the "superfluous" male offspring created. Becoming a vegan represents a refusal to give direct payment to encourage these cruel practices. The dairy and egg industries directly entail the torture and killing of cows and chickens just as the meat industry does.

Sherry F. Colb said...

Here's an analogy. Let's say it would be more "realistic" to get everyone to paint their homes green (that is, with green-color paint) than it would be to persuade people to reduce their carbon footprint. It would still be better to do the latter than the former, because the former does exactly nothing to alleviate environmental harm. The same is true for "humane" dairy and eggs (and meat, for that matter). It is, in other words, what we might call a "greenwash".

Gary said...

For every person who tries to make a change for the common good, there's someone ready to knock them down because their change isn't the right change, or isn't good enough. There's mercury in fluorescent bulbs, organic/vegan food trucked in across the country pollutes, raising minimum wage means less jobs, Obama's a socialist, and on and on. This paralyzes many people who contemplate change. How many people are willing to do all the research necessary to get it right the first time? Not many, and it all makes it easier for someone to resist the change. I think it would be quite an achievement if a large number of Americans became vegetarian in my lifetime. It would bring veganism that much closer.

Your analogy, Sherry, of green paint vs. reducing the carbon footprint doesn't fit at all. I'd say it's more like buying a hybrid rather than giving up cars altogether. A small step, but one that many are willing to make and one that greatly increases awareness.

Sherry F. Colb said...

Gary, I am not suggesting that doing something toward a just end but not going all the way is necessarily and in every case useless. I am suggesting that the specific step of eating supposedly "free range" eggs and "organic" milk as a measure toward the alleviation of animal cruelty is useless. A far better half-way measure, comparable to the hybrid car to which you refer, is a decision by someone who ordinarily eats meat at every meal to reduce his meat consumption by half, as an example. Deciding instead to eat eggs and milk at every meal instead of eating meat at every meal, by contrast, does not reduce animal suffering, precisely because what happens on farms -- whether "free range" or not -- to produce milk and to produce eggs entails horrific cruelty to animals, including the male offspring of the egg-and-milk producers who are cruelly killed, and also includes the slaughter of the hens and dairy cows once their production levels drop off. This is simply the reality of egg and dairy production. That is why the green paint and not the hybrid car is the appropriate analogy to consuming "free range" eggs, dairy, and meat. If you're thinking of taking a step to end animal cruelty but are not ready to be a vegan, you'll do a lot more good by *reducing* your consumption of all animal products than by substituting the aesthetically appealing ones for the more obviously grotesque. Far from moving toward a world that turns its back on cruelty to animals, such substitution makes what is in truth grotesque more palatable and thus more likely to last far into the future.

Gary said...

As a first point, I would think that becoming a vegetarian does have an impact on animal cruelty. I’ve been a vegetarian for so long, I don’t even remember details of my diet change, but I don’t think I replaced all of my meat consumption with increased dairy consumption. Rather, I ate more vegetables and soy products. If it were possible to come up with a cruelty per meal metric, I would expect that this goes down for most people who become vegetarian.

But for argument sake, let’s assume that this isn’t true, and that becoming a vegetarian has zero effect on the cruelty per meal metric. I would still argue that this is a positive step. Getting back to the original topic of social change, most, if not all, significant social changes occur on an incremental basis over time. Social change generally has an awareness step, followed by obtaining a level of concern, followed by a commitment to take some action, and then becoming accustomed to the change. As a society, this becomes a cycle, with incremental changes each cycle. After the first cycle, people are more receptive to the second. In this light, even if that first step is merely a lateral step, it still is an accomplishment toward making the next step.

If we, as a society, would have more consciousness of animal cruelty, and more willingness to make changes, even an inconsequential first step begins a movement.
Imagine if a large number of people were to become vegetarian for ethical reasons, and an even larger number were to accept this. Wouldn’t the result be a society that is more receptive to becoming vegan, or at least reducing dairy, since they already have the consciousness? Right now, many people deride vegetarianism. (If you think Obama winning was big, can you imagine an openly vegetarian presidential candidate winning in Iowa?) It would be a tremendous step if this were to change.

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