Friday, May 30, 2008

Gubernatorial Activism

I have watched with amusement over the years as the charge of "judicial activism" has morphed from meaning something like "a judicial decision to overturn the will of the people" into something more like "a judicial decision the speaker doesn't like." A nice recent example of the latter was in Sen. McCain's May 6 speech, in which he condemned Kelo as an instance of judicial activism---even though the Kelo case left to elected bodies the decision whether to use the power of eminent domain for redevelopment projects. It was the losing side in Kelo that sought intervention by the courts to block the political process. Kelo may or may not have been rightly decided. (I happen to think it was rightly decided, although I thought the New London plan was a bad idea.) But if it was wrong, that is not because it was an activist decision, unless "activist" is now simply a synonym for wrong.

Meanwhile, it turns out that charges of activism have now moved from the judicial to the executive realm. Note the reaction of one conservative (ahem) activist to the news that New York Governor David Paterson issued a directive to New York agencies to recognize as legal out-of-state same-sex marriages. Here's the quote from yesterday's NY Times story:
“It’s a perfect example of a governor overstepping his authority and sidestepping the democratic process,” said Brian Raum, senior legal counsel for the Alliance Defense Fund, a national organization opposed to same-sex marriage. “It’s an issue of public policy that should be decided by the voters.”
Since when are governors not permitted to make decisions of public policy? Perhaps Mr. Raum was referring (obliquely) to the fact that Paterson was not elected Governor but became Governor when Elliot Spitzer resigned. But if so, this point is triply misguided: Spitzer himself favored recognizing same-sex marriage; Paterson was elected on the same ticket as Spitzer; and if the voters of New York State are unhappy with this decision, they can turn Paterson out of office and replace him with a Governor who will rescind the directive.

There could be a legitimate complaint of overreaching if Paterson's order purported to bind the courts and the NY legislature, but it appears not to, and with respect to the courts, it's not even clear that this would be overreaching. At the federal level, under the Chevron doctrine, executive interpretations of statutes are given deference by the courts. I'm not saying that Paterson's directive necessarily would be entitled to the same deference---only that seeking such deference would not automatically count as overreaching. In any event, Raum's criticism appears to be less about checks and balances and more about the substance of Paterson's directive.

Next up: Criticism of "legislative activists" who use their majority status to enact laws that oppress the constituents of the minority of legislators who oppose those laws. At that point, the critics will need to turn to the courts to block such laws, which, of course, will not be judicial activism because, uhm, you know, these will be BAD laws. Oh no wait. We're already there. See McCain speech, supra.

Posted by Mike Dorf

28 comments:

Mortimer Brezny said...

Criticism of "legislative activists" who use their majority status to enact laws that oppress the constituents of the minority of legislators who oppose those laws.

Newsflash! Professor Dorf just criticized a fundamental rights argument! All his liberal buddies must be tearing their hair out! Larry Tribe plans to picket outside his office!

Michael C. Dorf said...

I'm sorry to disappoint you, Mr. Brezny but: 1) Neither Larry Tribe nor I nor any of my liberal buddies (with the possible exception of Ronald Dworkin and Jim Fleming) ever said the critique of judicial activism lacked all force. We only ever said that, on balance, there sometimes remain reasons for courts to construe and enforce counter-majoritarian rights. 2) I wasn't actually endorsing the critique of activism in this post anyway. I was merely pointing out that the critique had so morphed that it was losing the strength it had when it was more narrowly focused on counter-majoritarian judicial decisions. 3) Perhaps you can explain in a follow-up comment that now I'm just being, in your words, a "prissy twit" again. If so, readers should interpret my failure to respond to that follow-up as further evidence of my abject prissiness and twittiness. 4) Most of all, thanks for reading and commenting on my blog. In an era of readership polarization, it's useful to hear from people who think I'm a vain and immoral con man. Really.

Bob Moss said...

Aside from the drift in Supreme Court decisions away from "public use" and towards "public purpose", which are two different things, it is easy to establish that Kelo failed to follow established rules of construction. Few commentators seem to realize that under Kelo, the only way a takings decision can be invalidated is if it's arbitrary and capricious, or corruptly motivated. Under that standard, the takings clause becomes superfluous, because the due process clause would cover those cases. And the canons of construction require a presumption against superfluous text.

KipEsquire said...

Paterson was simply implementing the unambiguous recent ruling by NY courts (up to an including the state equivalent of a denial of cert) that long-standing NY statute and precedent require recognition of valid out-of-state marriages, even when those marriages could not be entered into in NY itself.

How is "doing what the courts say must be done" a case of "executive activism"?

First prize, meanwhile, goes to Gary Bauer, who is lamenting that an "activist" governor (who of course must be immediately impeached) has "overturned" (somehow) a court ruling!

The consequentialist vacuousness of anti-gay social conservatives has never been more prominently on display.

Mortimer Brezny said...

I wasn't actually endorsing the critique of activism in this post anyway. I was merely pointing out that the critique had so morphed that it was losing the strength it had when it was more narrowly focused on counter-majoritarian judicial decisions.

Fair enough. But my point was not that you were endorsing the view that "'legislative activists' [should not] use their majority status to enact laws that oppress the constituents of the minority of legislators who oppose those laws." Rather, it was that you were mocking someone who would argue that "'legislative activists' should not use their majority status to enact laws that oppress the constituents of the minority of legislators who oppose those laws". Except that formulation is precisely that of a liberal proponent of fundamental rights analysis. So, if you are mocking anyone, you are mocking liberals who make fundamental rights arguments. You may be, unintentionally, mocking yourself.

Your move now is to step away from the standard fundamental rights argument and claim "We [liberals] only ever said that, on balance, there sometimes remain reasons for courts to construe and enforce counter-majoritarian rights," which is a very weak interpretation of the phrase "a fundamental right". It isn't very fundamental and it isn't much of a right if it is only enforeceable "sometimes" and "on balance," nor is it all that counter-majoritarian, either.

It does not seem that you can have your cake and eat it too.

As for the claim that Patterson is not overreaching, I do not think your use of Chevron deference is on-point, and here's why. Often the federal agencies that stand-in for the Executive in administrative cases are actually independent agencies with credentialed staff that does not change with each administration and Department heads with fixed term limits. The deference to federal agency expertise in those cases makes sense, because the deference is to the independent agency's expertise, not to the political preferences of the White House. Here, Governor Patterson doesn't have any particular expertise on the social impact of gay adoption, just to take an example, nor was he elected to effectuate a pro-gay rights platform, as he wasn't elected at all. I think we'd have a different question if Spitzer had done this or if a state agency had done this based on in-house scientific studies or a customary legal review, etc., but here the political arm of the Governor's office did it, and the Governor's rationale for the public policy shift is that he had gay babysitters. That's ridiculous.

Hamilton said...

To Bob Moss: I think you're argument backs up Prof. Dorf's point. You say the court failed to follow established rules of construction, which it may have, but that doesn't make it an activist decision. Judicial activism (as I understand it) is the idea of judges acting as legislatures. A different construction of constitutional terms doesn't follow originalism or traditionalism, but it is still Judges doing what they are allowed to do, which is interpret the constitution. They are not in any way restricting legislatures (because legislatures are free not to take), so if there is a flaw in the Court's decision it is judicial passivism.

Of course, perhaps you are responding only to Prof. Dorf's claim that Kelo was rightly decided, in which case I am either a fool or willing to take words out of context to suit my arguments (its hard to say which is worse).

Sobek said...

Wow, I'm surprised at how much of your post I agree with. "Judicial activism" is very rarely defined by the speaker, or used in any meaningful sense. I remember Ted Kennedy complaining about conservative judicial activism, without ever bothering to explain what he meant.

I don't see Kelo as activism, either. I see it as judicial abdication -- the Court finds it hard to come up with a workable standard, so we'll just give up and go golfing or something.

Raum doesn't appear to use the word "activism." He is wrong when he says the governor somehow overstepped his authority -- governors obviously have power to dictate policy to government agencies. If Raum is simply saying, inartfully, that the governor's action is improper because it is contrary to the will of the people, that's not a question of authority, it's a question of voting the guy out. Unlike with life-tenured judges, the voters have a remedy.

As for "legislative activists," a liberal professor I worked with beat you to the punch. He argued in a paper that we published that the Republican Congress overstepped its bounds by denying the Dems a right to participate in legislation. I don't know whether his attitude has changed now that the Dems are in power.

egarber said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
egarber said...

So if Kelo is “activist”, I wonder what McCain thinks of Raich, and how he squares all of this with the states’ rights mantra.

One difference between Raich and Kelo is that the former upheld the national “will”, while the latter offered deference to local “will” (municipalities being allowed to basically call anything “public use”). So at least against that benchmark, both rulings appear to be very UN-activist.

But when you add the traditional conservative states’ rights advocacy (at least philosophically, if not legally) into the mix, it gets even wackier I think. All things considered, it seems to me that a guy like McCain should SUPPORT Kelo – which defended local rights – and OPPOSE Raich, which arguably represents the triumph of national law over that of an individual state. But somehow I think support for the (failed, imo) war on drugs might lead to the opposite finding.

And as Mike clarifies, it’s possible to support Kelo while criticizing the local officials behind it. Down here in GA, I’m pretty sure reforms were passed to prevent Kelo from having any influence – i.e., the law now specifically now outlaws what the municipalities did in that case. So even though it appears counter-intuitive, in the end you could say property rights grew *stronger* after Kelo, given the resulting narrower definitions of Eminent Domain in many states.

With Raich, there’s no chance of such a state correction – since the reach of state law was limited (or pushed back) by an expanded finding for federal law under the commerce clause. And to tie Raich to the fundamental rights banter in the comments, it seems to me advocates of medicinal marijuana should make a constitutional privacy claim next time around (as I recall, this wasn’t the argument before – though I welcome corrections).

Wow, I just babbled five paragraphs.

Len said...

I agree with the original post. McCain either does not know what he is talking about (possibly) or is jumping on the "Kelo is wrong" bandwagon for the wrong reason. What does Kelo say that Midkiff did not 20 years before?

Was the thinking at the time of Kelo that sufficient anti-activist justices had been appointed that Midkiff could be overruled? If so then those who were surprised by the Kelo outcome admit that activist judges means judges they disagree with.

joe` said...

Prof. Dorf,

Tangential point: Are you saying that the term judicial activism applies only to decisions which strip power from the elected bodies? I was under the impression that, e.g., overturning Roe would be judicial activism because it would overrule so much precedent.

(Not that I'm saying Kelo does that. If Kelo extends the Court's takings jurisprudence beyond, say, Midkiff [as argued by O'Connor], it surely does not change doctrine to the extent that overruling Roe would.)

Michael C. Dorf said...

In response to a point raised by some of these posts: The term "judicial activism" NEVER had any precise meaning as a term of art. Historically it has most frequently been used to refer to judicial decisions invalidating actions by elected officials (or the voters themselves in the case of a referendum) where there was at least a colorable argument that what the law or policy in question was valid. In this usage, "judicial activism" is closely tied to the critique of judicial review as counter-majoritarian. The term has also been applied frequently to decisions overturning (what the speaker believed to be) settled law. My post did not refer to this version of the term, although I agree with the comment by len that Kelo pretty much applied prior law, so that it cannot be fairly criticized as activist along the stare decisis dimension either. My main point was that current uses of the pejorative "activism" have so far strayed from its core meaning that it's no longer conveying anything other than disagreement.

Bob Moss said...

To Len (9:25) p.m.: Kelo says very little that Midkoff does not say. But Midkoff was wrongly decided. The drift away from established case law reached the tipping point in Berman, where the Court OK'd D.C.'s redevelopment using eminent domain. Berman's result was borderline correct, because D.C.'s action could be interpreted as abating a public nuisance, but Justice Douglas' dicta ranged expansively beyond the established case law, his fundamental error being the confusion of public "purpose" with public "use".

I agree with the other commenters that this is a side issue to Prof. Dorf's original post.

sexy said...

情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,情趣,按摩棒,跳蛋,充氣娃娃,情境坊歡愉用品,情趣用品,情人節禮物,情惑用品性易購

免費A片,AV女優,美女視訊,情色交友,免費AV,色情網站,辣妹視訊,美女交友,色情影片,成人影片,成人網站,A片,H漫,18成人,成人圖片,成人漫畫,情色網,日本A片,免費A片下載,性愛

A片,色情,成人,做愛,情色文學,A片下載,色情遊戲,色情影片,色情聊天室,情色電影,免費視訊,免費視訊聊天,免費視訊聊天室,一葉情貼圖片區,情色,情色視訊,免費成人影片,視訊交友,視訊聊天,視訊聊天室,言情小說,愛情小說,AIO,AV片,A漫,av dvd,聊天室,自拍,情色論壇,視訊美女,AV成人網,色情A片,SEX

情趣用品,A片,免費A片,AV女優,美女視訊,情色交友,色情網站,免費AV,辣妹視訊,美女交友,色情影片,成人網站,H漫,18成人,成人圖片,成人漫畫,成人影片,情色網


情趣用品,A片,免費A片,日本A片,A片下載,線上A片,成人電影,嘟嘟成人網,成人,成人貼圖,成人交友,成人圖片,18成人,成人小說,成人圖片區,微風成人區,成人文章,成人影城,情色,情色貼圖,色情聊天室,情色視訊,情色文學,色情小說,情色小說,臺灣情色網,色情,情色電影,色情遊戲,嘟嘟情人色網,麗的色遊戲,情色論壇,色情網站,一葉情貼圖片區,做愛,性愛,美女視訊,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,視訊交友網,免費視訊聊天,美女交友,做愛影片

av,情趣用品,a片,成人電影,微風成人,嘟嘟成人網,成人,成人貼圖,成人交友,成人圖片,18成人,成人小說,成人圖片區,成人文章,成人影城,愛情公寓,情色,情色貼圖,色情聊天室,情色視訊,情色文學,色情小說,情色小說,色情,寄情築園小遊戲,情色電影,aio,av女優,AV,免費A片,日本a片,美女視訊,辣妹視訊,聊天室,美女交友,成人光碟

情趣用品.A片,情色,情色貼圖,色情聊天室,情色視訊,情色文學,色情小說,情色小說,色情,寄情築園小遊戲,情色電影,色情遊戲,色情網站,聊天室,ut聊天室,豆豆聊天室,美女視訊,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,視訊交友網,免費視訊聊天,免費A片,日本a片,a片下載,線上a片,av女優,av,成人電影,成人,成人貼圖,成人交友,成人圖片,18成人,成人小說,成人圖片區,成人文章,成人影城,成人網站,自拍,尋夢園聊天室

sex999 said...

A片,A片,情色,情色,A片,A片,情色,情色,A片,A片,A片下載,做愛,成人電影,.18成人,日本A片,情色小說,情色電影,成人影城,自拍,情色論壇,成人論壇,情色貼圖,情色,免費A片,成人,成人網站,成人圖片,AV女優,成人光碟,色情,色情影片,免費A片下載,SEX,AV,色情網站,本土自拍,性愛,成人影片,情色文學,成人文章,成人圖片區,成人貼圖

美女交友,AIO交友愛情館,AIO,成人交友,視訊交友網,視訊交友,拓網交友,PC交友,視訊交友90739,交友,情色交友,聊天室交友,辣妹視訊,視訊辣妹,美女視訊,視訊美女,情色視訊,日本AV,免費視訊聊天,視訊聊天,AV女優,AV,視訊聊天室,視訊,免費視訊,情人視訊網,本土自拍,自拍,AVDVD,SEX,微風成人,微風論壇,微風成人區,成人網站,成人,成人電影,嘟嘟成人網,成人貼圖,成人影片,成人圖片區,成人圖片,18成人,成人小說,成人影城,成人文章,成人論壇,愛情公寓,情色論壇,情色,色情聊天室,色情,情色貼圖,情色文學,色情小說,情色小說,寄情築園小遊戲,色情遊戲,情色電影,情色網,做愛,UT聊天室,聊天室,聊天,哈拉聊天室,豆豆聊天室,尋夢園聊天室,聊天室尋夢園,080苗栗人聊天室,苗栗人聊天室,080中部人聊天室,080聊天室,中部人聊天室,柔情聊天網,6K聊天室,小高聊天室,上班族聊天室,免費A片,A片,成人聊天室,一夜情聊天室,情色聊天室,色色網,免費AV

路傑 said...

免費A片, ut聊天室, AV女優, 美女視訊, 免費成人影片, 成人論壇, 情色交友, 免費AV, 線上a片, 日本美女寫真集, 同志聊天室, 聊天室交友, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 色情網站, 辣妹視訊, 美女交友, 微風成人區, 色美媚部落格, 色情影片, 成人影片, 成人網站, 免費A片, 上班族聊天室, A片,H漫, 18成人, a漫, av dvd, 一夜情聊天室, 微風成人, 成人圖片, 成人漫畫, 情色網, 日本A片, 免費A片下載, 性愛, 成人交友, 嘟嘟成人網, 嘟嘟成人網, 成人貼圖, 成人電影, 成人, 中部人聊天室, 080中部人聊天室, 成人貼圖, 成人小說, 成人文章, 成人圖片區, 免費成人影片, 成人遊戲, 微風成人, 愛情公寓, 成人電影, A片, 情色, 情色貼圖, 情色文學, 做愛, 成人遊戲, 成人影城, 色情聊天室, 色情小說, 一葉情貼圖片區, 情色小說, 色情, 寄情築園小遊戲, 色情遊戲, 成人網站, 麗的色遊戲, 色情網站, 成人論壇, 情色視訊, 情色電影, aio交友愛情館, 言情小說, 愛情小說, 色情A片, 情色論壇, 自拍, 癡漢, , 俱樂部, 豆豆聊天室, 聊天室, 色情影片, 視訊聊天室, 免費視訊聊天, 免費視訊, 視訊交友90739 情人視訊網影音視訊聊天室 免費視訊聊天室 視訊聊天 視訊交友 美女視訊 視訊美女 視訊 免費視訊 免費視訊聊天 視訊聊天室 辣妹視訊 一夜情 色情a片 aio交友愛情館 情色電影 情色視訊 色情遊戲 色情 情色小說 一葉情貼圖片區 色情小說 色情聊天室 情色交友 成人論壇 成人網站 色情網站 情色論壇 小高聊天室 女同志聊天室 6K聊天室 080苗栗人聊天室 080聊天室 聊天室尋夢園 UT男同志聊天室 男同志聊天室 尋夢園聊天室 UT聊天室 聊天室 豆豆聊天室 A片 成人電影 成人貼圖 嘟嘟成人網 美女交友 本土自拍 成人交友 成人影片http://ssff01.3b8mm.com/

海盜 said...

成人網站,av女優,成人網站,a片,成人影片,h漫,成人電影,成人電影,色情,成人影片,免費A片,色情,成人影片,色情,免費A片,微風成人,情色,成人網站,av女優,成人網站,a片,成人影片,h漫,色情,成人電影,色情,成人電影,色情,成人影片,免費A片,成人影片,免費A片,情色,微風成人,成人網站,av女優,成人網站,a片,成人影片,h漫,成人電影,成人電影,色情,成人影片,免費A片,色情,成人影片,色情,免費A片,





微風成人,情色,成人網站,av女優,成人網站,a片,成人影片,h漫,色情,成人電影,色情,成人電影,色情,成人影片,免費A片,成人影片,免費A片,情色,微風成人,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,打卡鐘,跳蛋,持久液,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,色情網站,色情網站,色情網站,色情網站,av女優,av女優,av女優,av女優,色情,色情,色情,色情,h漫,h漫,h漫,h漫,sex,sex,sex,sex,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人電影,成人電影,成人電影,成人電影,av女優,a片,a片,a片,a片,成人網站,







成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,av女優,av女優,av女優,av女優,色情,色情,色情,色情,h漫,h漫,h漫,h漫,sex,sex,sex,sex,情色,情色,情色,情色,黃金回收,黃金回收,黃金回收,黃金回收,借錢,借錢,借錢,借錢,植牙,植牙,植牙,牙醫,牙醫,牙醫,a片,a片,a片,a片,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,成人影片,成人影片,



成人影片

,成人影片,av女優,av女優,av女優,av女優,色情,色情,色情,色情,h漫,h漫,h漫,h漫,sex,sex,sex,sex,情色,情色,情色,情色,黃金,黃金,黃金,黃金,黃金價格,黃金價格,黃金價格,黃金價格,黃金買賣,黃金買賣,黃金買賣,黃金買賣,當舖,當舖,當舖,當舖,鑽石價格,鑽石價格,鑽石價格,鑽石價格,鑽石回收,鑽石回收,鑽石回收,鑽石回收,鑽石買賣,鑽石買賣,鑽石買賣,鑽石買賣,黃金存摺,黃金存摺,黃金存摺,







黃金存摺,辣妹視訊,辣妹視訊,辣妹視訊,辣妹視訊,080視訊聊天室,080視訊聊天室,080視訊聊天室,080視訊聊天室,美女交友,美女交友,美女交友,美女交友,情色視訊,情色視訊,情色視訊,情色視訊,哈啦聊天室,哈啦聊天室,哈啦聊天室,哈啦聊天室,ut聊天室,ut聊天室,ut聊天室,ut聊天室,聊天室,聊天室,聊天室,打卡鐘,火鍋吃到飽,創業加盟,賺錢,吃到飽麻辣鍋成人網站,成人影片,av女優,h漫,成人網站,成人電影,a片,色情,成人影片,色情,成人電影,色情,h漫,成人影片,成人電影,免費A片,色情,成人電影,成人影片,免費A片,色情,成人網站,免費A片,成人網站,色情,a片,成人影片,情色,免費A片,微風成人,情色,成人影片,微風成人,av女優

sm said...

威而柔,自慰套,自慰套,SM,充氣娃娃,充氣娃娃,潤滑液,飛機杯,按摩棒,跳蛋,性感睡衣,威而柔,自慰套,自慰套,SM,充氣娃娃,充氣娃娃,潤滑液,飛機杯,按摩棒,跳蛋,性感睡衣
情惑用品性易購



免費視訊聊天,辣妹視訊,視訊交友網,美女視訊,視訊交友,視訊交友90739,成人聊天室,視訊聊天室,視訊聊天,視訊聊天室,情色視訊,情人視訊網,視訊美女
一葉情貼圖片區,免費視訊聊天室,免費視訊,ut聊天室,聊天室,豆豆聊天室,尋夢園聊天室,聊天室尋夢園,影音視訊聊天室


辣妹視訊,美女視訊,視訊交友網,視訊聊天室,視訊交友,視訊美女,免費視訊,免費視訊聊天,視訊交友90739,免費視訊聊天室,成人聊天室,視訊聊天,視訊交友aooyy
哈啦聊天室,辣妺視訊,A片,色情A片,視訊,080視訊聊天室,視訊美女34c,視訊情人高雄網,視訊交友高雄網,0204貼圖區,sex520免費影片,情色貼圖,視訊ukiss
網頁設計,徵信社,情侶歡愉用品

色情遊戲,寄情築園小遊戲,情色文學,一葉情貼圖片區,情惑用品性易購,情人視訊網,辣妹視訊,情色交友,成人論壇,情色論壇,愛情公寓,情色,舊情人,情色貼圖,色情聊天室,色情小說,做愛,做愛影片,性愛


情惑用品性易購,aio交友愛情館,一葉情貼圖片區,情趣用品,情侶歡愉用品

情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣,情趣,情侶歡愉用品

網頁設計,徵信社

bobo said...

This is the latest and hottest ghd styler ever. If you need a ghd hair straighteners, this is a must buyghd hair straighteners,cheap ghd hair straighteners,pink ghd hair straightenersghd straightenersComme vous pouvez le voir, il s'agit d'une paire de chaussures shox classiquepink ghd hair straighteners . Si vous souhaitez poursuivre la mode, nike shox NZ sont votre meilleu…"Cette paire de Nike Shox Torch est chaud en maintenant la demande.nike chaussurestn chaussures

kutyhgvd said...

I always heard something from my neighbor that he sometimes goes to the internet bar to play the game which will use him some gw gold,he usually can win a lot of GuildWars Gold,then he let his friends all have some Guild Wars Gold,his friends thank him very much for introducing them the GuildWars money,they usually cheap gw gold together.

. said...

酒店喝酒,禮服店,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,制服店,便服店,鋼琴酒吧,兼差,酒店兼差,酒店打工,伴唱小姐,暑假打工,酒店上班,日式酒店,舞廳,ktv酒店,酒店,酒店公關,酒店小姐,理容院,日領,龍亨,學生兼差,酒店兼差,酒店上班,酒店打工,禮服酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,台北酒店,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,禮服店 ,酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工,酒店小姐,經紀 彩色爆米花,經紀人 彩色爆米花,酒店傳播,酒店經紀 彩色爆米花,爆米花,童裝,童裝拍賣,童裝大盤,童裝寄賣,童裝批貨,酒店,酒店,童裝切貨,酒店,GAP童裝,酒店,酒店 ,禮服店 , 酒店小姐,酒店經紀,酒店兼差,寒暑假打工

sexy野牛 said...

a片,成人網站,美女交友,美女視訊,a片,成人網站,美女交友,美女視訊,a片,成人網站,美女交友,美女視訊,聊天室,美女視訊,聊天室,美女視訊



成人網站,成人影片,av女優,h漫,成人網站,成人電影,a片,色情,成人影片,色情,成人電影,色情,h漫,成人影片,成人電影,免費A片,色情,成人電影,成人影片,免費A片,色情,成人網站,情趣用品,免費A片,成人網站,色情,a片,成人影片,情色,免費A片,微風成人,情色,成人影片,微風成人,av女優



成人網站,色情網站,av女優,色情,成人網站,成人影片,成人電影,av女優,a片,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,成人影片,av女優
色情,h漫,sex,情色,a片,成人網站,成人影片,av女優,色情
h漫,sex,情色,辣妹視訊,080視訊聊天室,美女交友
情色視訊,哈啦聊天室,ut聊天室,聊天室



美女交友,美女交友,美女交友,視訊辣妹,視訊辣妹,視訊辣妹,視訊聊天室,視訊聊天室,視訊聊天室,成人交友,成人交友,成人交友,視訊美女,視訊美女,視訊美女,聊天室,聊天室,聊天室



成人網站,av女優,成人網站,a片,成人影片,成人電影,h漫,成人電影,色情,成人影片,色情,免費A片,成人影片,免費A片,情色,微風成人
美女交友,美女交友,視訊辣妹,視訊辣妹,視訊聊天室,視訊聊天室,成人交友,成人交友,視訊美女,視訊美女,聊天室,聊天室
美女交友,美女交友,美女交友,視訊辣妹,視訊辣妹,視訊辣妹,視訊聊天室,視訊聊天室,視訊聊天室,成人交友,成人交友,成人交友,視訊美女,視訊美女,視訊美女,聊天室,聊天室,聊天室



a片,成人網站,av女優,h漫,成人影片,免費a片,情趣用品,色情,微風成人,情色,sex,成人電影,聊天室,美女交友,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,成人交友,美女視訊,聊天室,美女交友,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,成人交友,美女視訊,成人網站,情色,情趣用品,色情,sex,免費a片,h漫,av女優,成人影片,a片,微風成人,成人電影,聊天室,美女交友,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,成人交友,美女視訊,聊天室,美女交友,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,成人交友,美女視訊,成人電影,成人網站,情色,情趣用品,色情,sex,免費a片,h漫,av女優,成人影片,a片,微風成人,聊天室,美女交友,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,成人交友,美女視訊,聊天室,美女交友,辣妹視訊,視訊聊天室,成人交友,美女視訊



a片,a片,a片,a片,a片,av女優,av女優,av女優,av女優,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,h漫,h漫,h漫,h漫,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,成人網站,免費A片,免費A片,免費A片,免費A片,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人電影,成人電影,成人電影,成人電影,免費A片,免費A片,免費A片,免費A片,成人電影,成人電影,成人電影,成人電影,色情,色情,色情,色情,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,微風成人,微風成人,微風成人,微風成人,色情,色情,色情,色情,情趣用品,情趣用品,情趣用品,色情,色情,色情,色情,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,成人影片,情色,情色,情色,情色,打卡鐘,跳蛋,持久液,色情網站,黃金回收,借錢,植牙,牙醫,成人網站,成人影片,av女優,色情,h漫,情色,sex,黃金價格,黃金,黃金買賣,黃金存摺,鑽石價格,鑽石回收,鑽石買賣,當舖,辣妹視訊,080視訊聊天室,美女交友,情色視訊,哈啦聊天室,ut聊天室,聊天室,打卡鐘,火鍋吃到飽,創業加盟,賺錢,吃到飽麻辣鍋

wsty said...

www.eshooes.com .
www.pumafr.com.
www.myshoess.com.
[url=http://www.pumafr.com]puma shoes[/url]
[url=http://www.eshooes.com]chaussures puma[/url]
[url=http://www.myshoess.com]nike air max ltd[/url]

酒店上班請找艾葳 said...

艾葳酒店經紀提供專業的酒店經紀,酒店上班,酒店打工、兼職、酒店相關知識等酒店相關產業服務,想加入這行業的水水們請找專業又有保障的艾葳酒店經紀公司!
艾葳酒店經紀是合法的公司、我們是不會跟水水簽任何的合約 ( 請放心 ),我們是不會強押水水辛苦工作的薪水,我們絕對不會對任何人公開水水的資料、工作環境高雅時尚,無業績壓力,無脫秀無喝酒壓力,高層次會員制客源,工作輕鬆。
一般的酒店經紀只會在水水們第一次上班和領薪水時出現而已,對水水們的上班安全一點保障都沒有!艾葳酒店經紀公司的水水們上班時全程媽咪作陪,不需擔心!只提供最優質的酒店上班環境、上班條件給水水們。

酒店經紀ㄚ君姐姐 said...

,,姐.,便服/,,

freefun0616 said...

酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店經紀, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店工作, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀, 專業酒店經紀, 合法酒店經紀, 酒店暑假打工, 酒店寒假打工, 酒店經紀人, 菲梵酒店經紀, 酒店經紀, 禮服酒店上班, 酒店小姐兼職, 便服酒店工作, 酒店打工經紀, 制服酒店經紀,,

sun said...

牙醫,植牙,矯正,矯正牙齒,紋身,刺青,創業,批發,皮膚科,痘痘,中醫,飛梭雷射,毛孔粗大,醫學美容,痘痘,肉毒桿菌,seo,關鍵字行銷,自然排序,網路行銷,自然排序,關鍵字行銷seo,部落格行銷,網路行銷,seo,關鍵字行銷,自然排序,部落格行銷,網路行銷,牛舌餅婚紗台中婚紗,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,腳臭,高雄婚紗,街舞,小產,雞精,紋身,刺青,性感,辣妹,雷射溶脂,雙下巴,抽脂,瘦小腹,微晶瓷,電波拉皮,淨膚雷射,清潔公司,居家清潔

erqing said...

Those are best online website , best service , best quality. Good luck !
ed hardy clothing
Chaussures Sport
Tennis Racquet Shop
Cheap Polo Shirts
The North Face Jackets
cheap ed hardy
Chaussures Sport
Tennis Racquet
nike shox r4
ed hardy
cheap ed hardy
polo shirts
cheap polo
Remise Chaussures Sport
nike tn requin
ed hardy clothes
nike femmes chaussures